زبان، فضا، و توسعه انعطاف پذیری شناختی در انسان: مورد دو وظیفه حافظه فضایی
|کد مقاله||سال انتشار||مقاله انگلیسی||ترجمه فارسی||تعداد کلمات|
|77325||2001||37 صفحه PDF||سفارش دهید||محاسبه نشده|
Publisher : Elsevier - Science Direct (الزویر - ساینس دایرکت)
Journal : Cognition, Volume 79, Issue 3, May 2001, Pages 263–299
Prior experiments have shown that young children, like adult rats, rely mainly on information about the macroscopic shape of the environment to reorient themselves, whereas human adults rely more flexibly on combinations of spatial and non-spatial landmark information. Adult rats have also been shown to exhibit a striking limitation in another spatial memory task, movable object search, again a limitation not shown by human adults. The present experiments explored the developmental change in humans leading to more flexible, human adult-like performance on these two tasks. Experiment 1 identified the age range of 5–7 years as the time the developmental change for reorientation occurs. Experiment 2 employed a multiple regression approach to determine that among several candidate measures, only a specific language production measure, the production of phrases specifying exactly the information needed to solve the task like adults, correlated with the reorientation performance of children in this age range. Experiment 3 revealed that similar language production abilities were associated with more flexible moving object search task performance. These results, in combination with findings with human adults, suggest that language production skills play a causal role in allowing older humans to construct novel representations rapidly, which can then be used to transcend the limits of phylogenetically older cognitive processes.