مردان سریعتر می دوند: تفاوت جنسیت پایدار در رقابت جویی در دوندگان ماراتن ایالات متحده
|کد مقاله||سال انتشار||مقاله انگلیسی||ترجمه فارسی||تعداد کلمات|
|77623||2006||22 صفحه PDF||سفارش دهید||9850 کلمه|
Publisher : Elsevier - Science Direct (الزویر - ساینس دایرکت)
Journal : Evolution and Human Behavior, Volume 27, Issue 1, January 2006, Pages 63–84
Sex differences in competitiveness are well established, but it is unknown if they originate from sociocultural conditions or evolved predispositions. Testing these hypotheses requires a quantifiable sex difference in competitiveness and the application of a powerful sociocultural manipulation to eliminate it. Study 1 reviews previous work showing that more male distance runners are motivated by competition and maintain large training volumes, suggesting that more males should run fast relative to sex-specific world-class standards. I then use two independent statistical approaches to demonstrate that, in matched populations of male and female U.S. runners, two to four times as many males as females ran relatively fast in 2003. Study 2 investigates whether the growth in opportunities and incentives for female athletes in the past 30 years is eliminating this sex difference. I first show that there was a marked increase in the number of fast female runners in the 1970s and early 1980s, a period during which female participation increased dramatically. However, I found no indication of an absolute or relative increase in the number of fast female distance runners since the mid-1980s. These findings therefore support the hypothesis that sex differences in competitiveness partly reflect evolved predispositions.