سیستم مدیریت ریسک در روابط کسب و کار__مطالعات موردی لهستانی
|کد مقاله||سال انتشار||مقاله انگلیسی||ترجمه فارسی||تعداد کلمات|
|780||2012||10 صفحه PDF||سفارش دهید||1 کلمه|
Publisher : Elsevier - Science Direct (الزویر - ساینس دایرکت)
Journal : Industrial Marketing Management, Volume 41, Issue 5, July 2012, Pages 790–799
The article discusses the problem of risk management in business relationships. The authors' research (including a case study analysis of 5 different relations) enabled them to identify and characterize the risk management systems based on a combination of formal control and relational mechanisms. In the authors' research it has been assumed that relational risk has a negative influence on the cooperation results and therefore it should be a subject of management. The main objective is not to avoid taking risk in relationships, but to reduce it to the minimum possible level. Companies' cooperation, including partnerships with different entities and participation in business networks, is an immanent characteristic of contemporary business. Therefore managers should look for the most efficient methods of dealing with additional relational risk and opportunistic behavior of potential partners. In the paper the case study analysis of five relationships of companies operating on Polish market was presented. The main objective was to demonstrate the relation between the level of trust and the intensity of formal control (including contract and formal monitoring). The range of social control applied in analyzed relationships was also an important issue of consideration. The research presented in the paper indicated that companies located in Poland in order to reduce relational risk aimed at diversification of its partners or full integration. Managers often underlined their fear of being dependent on one particular partner. This phenomenon could comprehensively decrease the advantages of intensive and deepened inter-organizational cooperation in Poland. Furthermore, the research demonstrated the decisive role of relational mechanisms and limited significance of contract in business relationship risk management. However, relatively higher importance of contract was observed in unbalanced relations between partners representing diverse bargaining power. A positive relationship between application of relational tools and cooperation results was identified as well. The aim of the paper is to demonstrate the nature of the relationship risk management system and the role of particular mechanisms that enable to reduce risk and its negative influence on cooperation results.
Uncertainty of the environment and behaviors which exert an influence on the problems in monitoring cooperation results of a partnership, on the level and risk of investment in specific assets, or adaptation difficulties together with unstable nature of alliances, constitute a high risk of business partnerships. Despite optional character of strategic cooperation, the economic situation, numerous benefits from business relationships as well as expectations of many stakeholders of an enterprise are responsible for the fact that avoiding strategic partnership risk is not a beneficial solution. Searching for and applying such strategies and instruments which will best respond to the undertaken risk of mutual exchange become a key task for decision makers. Success of many partnerships allows an assumption that in practice some enterprises skillfully use the mechanisms preventing and controlling behaviors harmful for long-lasting and sustainable relationships. These problems seem to be of crucial significance since companies seek inter-organizational cooperation and create business networks (Ford & Håkansson, 2006). The authors have accepted a definition of strategic business relationships risk management according to which it is a process of identification, evaluation and control of the negative influence of strategic cooperation with an independent economic entity on assets and profit-making opportunities of an enterprise carried out by the Board, management or other company staff members. Business organizations carry out this process at different stages of organizational development. Risk-related activities mean the selection and implementation of some measures to modify the risk. The main activity is to limit the risk through controlling. Other possible reactions include risk avoidance, risk transfer or financing of risk through insurance (Chapman, 2008, pp.188–190). Concerning strategic relationships, risk avoidance and risk reduction seem to be the most feasible activities. The former strategy means that enterprises resign from establishing and participating in external inter-organizational relations both in the form of partnership relations with a single contractor and in larger network structures, including e.g. integrated supply chains. Due to constraints on growth and development, this situation cannot be maintained in the long term. Therefore, another solution for the companies which avoid the risk of business relationships is to obtain the necessary resources through hierarchical structures, namely mergers and takeovers. This method of expansion involves other governance problems which are beyond the scope of this paper. However, keeping in mind the main imperatives of today's business, such as globalization, competition within networks, pressure on creating value and pressure of time, it is difficult to imagine an effective enterprise without any support from contractors in the field of widely defined external resources and skills, frequently of strategic significance. Therefore, business relationships risk-related activities will come down, above all, to risk restriction thanks to the application of formal and informal instruments of control. It shall ensure effective and efficient functioning of an enterprise. The measure of control mechanisms effectiveness is to what extent a given risk is eliminated or restricted when certain measures are introduced. Profitability, on the other hand, refers to a comparison between the costs of implementation of risk-reducing mechanisms and the expected benefits. The main aim of the paper is to identify, through the analysis of theory and research results, instruments of relationship risk management and the relations between them. The paper presents an empirical exemplification of the considerations in the form of case study analysis. The first part of the article develops a holistic model of risk management system in business partnerships based on the theory. The assumption concerning dependencies between the elements of the system is accepted. The research methodology was presented in the second part of the paper. Third part (case study presentation) contains the analysis of surveyed companies and relationships. All important findings and results of the conducted research and analysis, including conclusions and implications for managers, as well as further research directions, are presented in the final part of the paper.
نتیجه گیری انگلیسی
5.1. Empirical results Each case is an interesting example of firms' attitude to relationships and their approach to the question of partnership risk. These cases indicate significance of both social aspects of cooperation and more formal ones—in the form of contract and the approved mode of monitoring. One may assume that when both groups of instruments are not equally developed, enterprises are exposed to the biggest losses. Stipulations included in the contract are not able to replace trust and commonly shared relational norms (the case of partnership in the telecommunication sector). However, mutuality is absolutely necessary. Trust, unsupported by activities of the other party or relational norms which are an effect of unilateral activities, does not guarantee the reduction of relational risk. The lack of mutuality leads to a classical model of “the prisoner's dilemma” presented in the theory of games (the case of Eastern Group and Mistral Innovation). The comparison of the case studies makes it possible to draw the following conclusions: – In strategic cooperation oriented towards well-balanced partnership the contract is of slight importance (Philips-Elektroskandia, Philips-Grodno). – When the relationship is more oriented towards the mode of activity than towards goals, the contract has a negative influence on trust. Contracts of this type are accompanied by monitoring and atmosphere of distrust (Operator—TXN). – High costs of realization of a too detailed contract reduce the results of the relationship (Operator—TXN). – Relational norms and trust are of major significance, provided that they are mutual (Philips-Elektroskandia, Philips-Grodno). – Having a common goal and experience are extremely important for cooperation. Without the common goals other aspects of cooperation lose their significance. Fig. 2 presents research conclusions made in the context of strategic partnership management risk. In each case the relational risk exerted a crucial impact on the perceived level of results in a relationship. When the anticipated risk was high, the effects of partnership were usually lower than expected. What is interesting is that economic risk seems to be a motivator for cooperation, although an exact course of dependencies and the mode of impact on a partnership should be a subject of further analyses. Keeping in mind limited possibilities to obtain other than declarative evaluations of trust, a general conclusion can be drawn about the vital role of mutual trust in a relationship. This fact was emphasized by all the respondents participating in the interview. However, goodwill is more important for cooperation than competence trust (Das & Teng, 2001). Of key importance is the mutual character of relational instruments. One-sided convictions in the system of risk management are not only ineffective but also harmful. In this context the goal of the partners should be to develop social control of bilateral character. 5.2. Final conclusions The paper's contribution is both of theoretical and practical character. The literature review enabled the authors to create a holistic model of partnership risk management (see Fig. 1), which can be also a starting point for further research. The model contains disputable elements and relations, which have not been explained and confirmed in the literature so far. The presented case studies confirmed the role of relational norms being the key factor in relational governance of strategic partnership. Generally, relational norms are closely connected with mutual trust. In none of analyzed cases was a high level of trust observed without well-developed relational norms, such as frequent meetings, mutual communication, joint problem solving, flexibility of activities or solidarity with the partner in difficult times. One can also notice a strong feedback–trust affects all the factors that have a positive influence on it. A significant aim of detailed interviews was to find out how important a contract is in strategic relationships. Case study analysis made it possible to identify additional interesting observations in this field which may be an important premise for further research. Namely, in long-term relationships, based on common objectives, with relatively equal level of forces, the significance of contract agreements is of secondary importance. The research was conducted among companies located and operating in Poland. This country is characterized by one of the lowest level of social capital in Europe (Czapiński, 2009).4 Thus, there was a justified concern about the role of the formal mechanism instruments. They seemed to be the most important ones in terms of decreasing the perceived relational risk. However, the research results confirmed the dominating role of relational governance affecting the relational risk. Despite the above mentioned conclusion the role of a contract in economic practice is not totally passive. The contract plays a significant role in unbalanced relationships, where the dominating party deliberately intends to use its advantageous position. Moreover, its role may be crucial when strategic intentions of partners are not fully disclosed. As a rule the contract plays a dominating role in the relationships with a low level of mutual trust. These are usually contracts of unilateral character where the conditions are dictated by the stronger party. However, it is difficult to clearly determine the direction of influence in the relationship between contract and trust, whether a detailed agreement is the cause of low trust or vice versa, whether deficit of trust causes a dominating role of the contract. The answers cannot be found in the research results presented in the literature so far. On the other hand, an interesting finding is a positive influence of a detailed contract on the perceived credibility of the partner. However, high competences neither influence the reduction of partnership risk nor increase the partnership performance. Their role is limited to the development of relational norms in a partnership. The conducted research has also direct implications for managers. The main issue is to exploit the partnership potential through being actively involved in cooperation. The lack of close cooperation, most frequently caused by fear of being too much dependent on the partner, is the strategy of relational risk avoidance. This strategy does not allow using cooperation advantage, particularly significant for strengthening the strategic position of the company and for efficient objectives meeting. Although distrust towards partners gives some protection against the possible threats, this takes place at the cost of passivity and the loss of benefits resulting from interaction. The strategies which correspond better to the contemporary conditions of competition are linked with establishment of various partnership relations between companies. It leads to co-establishment of a strong business network able to compete on a global scale with other networks. Avoidance of inter-organizational strategic relationships excludes a company from participation in world-wide business networks. The presented research was limited to the analysis of relations between partnership risk management system elements identified within the developed holistic model (see Fig. 1). Further research should concentrate on the identification of most efficient risk management instruments influencing the partnership performance. Another interesting point is the influence of organizational culture of multinational enterprises' involved in the research on their relationships with external entities. This could be also an important research direction, concerning the development of partnership concept in doing business in Poland. The relational risk reduction is a form of partner control, which according to the IMP network approach is destructive to networks (Ford, Gadde, Håkansson, & Snehota, 2003). However, the control aiming at the strengthening of relational mechanism and eliminating formal instruments should lead to the increase of the reputation of entities creating the network. From this point of view, further research concerning partnership risk management at relationship and relationships' portfolio level seems to be reasonable in context of network approach, as well.