به کارگیری مفهوم مدل کسب و کار برای حمایت از تصویب سیستم های محصول و خدمات (PSS)
|کد مقاله||سال انتشار||تعداد صفحات مقاله انگلیسی||ترجمه فارسی|
|7841||2013||12 صفحه PDF||سفارش دهید|
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Publisher : Elsevier - Science Direct (الزویر - ساینس دایرکت)
Journal : Industrial Marketing Management, Available online 24 May 2013
Although the existing literature indicates that the business model concept can be useful to implement product–service systems (PSS), there is still a paucity of guidelines to assist companies in this respect. Therefore, this paper proposes a framework to support the adoption of PSS employing the business model concept. This framework was developed based on literature review and intends to guide the company on the analysis of their business context, on the choice of the appropriate type of PSS and on the definition of their PSS characteristics. A single case study was then performed to illustrate an application of the framework in a machine tool manufacturer and provide research insights. Overall, results indicate that the framework can provide companies with a useful reference to PSS implementation, helping on the investigation of different PSS scenarios as well as the main barriers and challenges to be overcome.
A service oriented approach provides new ways of dealing with businesses, customers and with the value chain. As a result, this approach has received increasing attention from manufacturing companies seeking opportunities for competitive advantage. Although companies constantly offer services to the market, they have only in recent years seen the integration of products and services as a possibility for growth and competitiveness (Jacob & Ulaga, 2008). Different research communities have studied the integration of product and services, adopting different terms for the same subject. Among them, three are of particular importance: servitization (Vandermerwe & Rada, 1988), service-dominant logic (Vargo & Lusch, 2004) and product–service systems (PSS) (Goedkoop, van Halen, te Riele, & Rommens, 1999). Despite the difference on terms, the central concept is the same: to shift the focus of traditional businesses based on the design and sale of physical products to a new business orientation that considers functionalities and benefits delivered through products and services (Manzini & Vezzoli, 2003). Special attention is given to the interaction between customers and companies, contributing to an improved value proposition based on the integration of resources, knowledge and skills (Kowalkowski, 2010). This study uses the term PSS throughout this paper. Manzini and Vezzoli (2003) and Tan (2010) suggested that the adoption of PSS provides insights about aspects considered relevant to businesses, such as: types of products, customer needs, product and service strategies, relationships with stakeholders and financial income options. However, Tischner, Verkuijl, and Tukker (2002) stated that there are questions without answer hindering companies in their attempts to implement. For example: How can companies create and offer value to their customers? How can this value be produced and delivered? How can companies interact with customers and partners? These questions, which are related to business logic, represent challenges that companies face when adopting PSS. In fact, one of the main challenges for companies wishing to adopt PSS is to identify the changes required in their businesses (Meier & Massberg, 2004). These changes derive from the differences between PSS and the traditional way of developing and selling products. Since the business is a central point in this issue, the business model concept seems appropriate to be employed. Business models are representations of companies' strategies, operations and relationships that define their business logic. It can be considered a conceptual tool that helps companies to identify, understand, design, analyze, and change their business models (Osterwalder & Pigneur, 2010). Tan (2010) states that the business model concept is useful to characterize PSS, since its implementation often requires the redefinition or creation of new business models (Tischner et al., 2002). Tukker and Tischner (2006) also believe that it is important to conceptualize PSS in terms of business models to facilitate its adoption. Because the success of a company depends on its operations, strategy and networks, the business model may be redesigned to support the PSS offer (Schuh, Schittny, & Gaus, 2009). Matthyssens and Vandenbempt (2010) brought up an important point by questioning why and how the transition toward PSS affects companies and how they can deal with it in terms of their business models. Richter, Sadek, Steven, and Welp (2009) highlighted the need of investigations which combine the viewpoint of PSS and business models, aiming to gain a better understanding of this context and to assist on PSS adoption. Despite the importance of addressing the relationship between PSS and business models, the current paucity of information about how to use the business model concept to support the adoption of PSS is challenging for companies and offers opportunities for investigation (Mont, 2004). What PSS contents should business models encompass? Should companies adapt their business models to fit with PSS characteristics or should they create new business models? The literature appears to be unable to answer these questions. This study proposes a framework based on a business model conceptual tool, named Canvas business model, which aims to analyze companies in terms of PSS requirements and to define actions to implement it. First, this study investigated the business model concept and PSS characteristics in the literature. The findings underpinned the definition of the framework's parts, which includes business context, types of PSS and its characteristics. The resulting framework was then applied to guide the adoption of PSS in a machine tool manufacturer, providing research insights and illustrating an attempt to introduce PSS using the business model concept. The next section describes the research methodology. Following, this paper presents the literature review, the framework and the key results of its application. At the end, the empirical and theoretical contributions of this study are announced.
نتیجه گیری انگلیسی
From the academic standpoint, this study investigates the adoption of PSS through a perspective based on the business model concept. This perspective differs of current studies, which have focused on the PSS characteristics related to product design or on specific elements of business, e.g., customer relationships, cost management and partnerships. From the empirical point of view, the first contribution that can be delineated is the identification and classification of the PSS characteristics according to a business model structure. This result enables companies to better compare their business models to the characteristics expected when adopting PSS. Moreover, an overview of the PSS characteristics supports companies to discover opportunities for their current business models or to new ones. An understanding of PSS characteristics can therefore help companies in the selection of the characteristics that best fit into their business context or that can lead to new business opportunities (Tan, 2010). The second contribution is the creation of the framework to support companies that want to implement PSS. It gives to companies a starting point to deal with PSS. The third contribution is the case of the machine tool manufacturer, which illustrated the use of the proposed framework to identify opportunities for the adoption of PSS. During the application of the framework, which embraces an analysis of the requirements to implement different types of PSS, several barriers were identified. The description of such barriers can help companies to mitigate future risks and adopt PSS successfully. In addition, examples of challenges that can affect PSS are revealed, such as machine leasing, financial aspects and internal resistance. The analysis of these challenges can be deployed into actions capable of stimulating the PSS implementation. By deciding to adapt or to create a new business model to fit with the PSS requirements, companies should check constantly whether and how this decision can impact on their business or corporate strategy. Since the implementation of PSS can lead to changes of elements linked to ongoing businesses, managers should keep in mind the importance of reviewing strategic constraints and redefining the types and characteristics of PSS to overcome potential issues. Therefore, even if the framework implementation occurs without issues, a feedback loop to the framework first part may be required to analyze whether the first decision of adapting or creating a new business model continues valid. The major limitation of this research relies on a single application of the framework. More studies have to be performed to increase its credibility and the validity of its results. It is also important to emphasize the aim of this application is to give an example of how the framework can support companies interested in adopting PSS. The case was not designed to assess it, which should be part of the future actions planned for this research. This study recommends for further research the analysis of the environment in which PSS wants to be introduced, in particular the legal, technological and economic aspects. In fact, the alignment with external factors is primordial to the effective design and implementation of PSS. The next steps of this research embrace the proposition of an application process for the framework and the identification of linkages between the PSS characteristics and the types of PSS. In addition, cases that present the implementation of the framework could be performed to assess its results in a more concrete manner.