پیکربندی شبکه، مشتری مداری، و عملکرد مدل های کسب و کار باز : چشم انداز ارائه دهنده راه حل
|کد مقاله||سال انتشار||تعداد صفحات مقاله انگلیسی||ترجمه فارسی|
|7845||2013||12 صفحه PDF||سفارش دهید|
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Publisher : Elsevier - Science Direct (الزویر - ساینس دایرکت)
Journal : Industrial Marketing Management, Available online 25 May 2013
While research has shown a positive impact of open business models on value creation, it has remained silent on the configuration of the corresponding partner networks and their effect on performance. Studying three cases of solution providers which involve external service partners for solution delivery, we find that solution customer centricity – the degree to which the focal firm focuses on solution customers in the joint delivery of solutions – moderates the relationship between partner networks and open business model performance. For open business models with low solution customer centricity, a network configuration characterized by many weak ties to service partners leads to superior performance. Conversely, for open business models with high solution customer centricity, few but strong ties to partners lead to superior performance. Based on these findings, three ideal configurations of networks for open business models are derived: the controlled, the joint, and the supported model. The findings of this paper are especially relevant for managers of product-focused firms who seek guidance in evolving their business models into solution providers. The paper also contributes to business model research by linking extant insights from network research to open business model performance.
Increasing specialization and division of labor in today's economy have led to the emergence of open business models in many industries. One instance of these business models are firms which rely on external service providers in delivering integrated solutions. While the business model, in general, illustrates the logic of how firms create and capture value (Chesbrough and Rosenbloom, 2002, Mason and Spring, 2011, Teece, 2010 and Zott and Amit, 2009), the open business model specifically describes value creation and capturing by “systematically collaborating with outside partners” (Osterwalder & Pigneur, 2010: 109). Scholars in this field explain how the integration of external resources and exchange with partners can create additional value ( Chesbrough, 2006, Chesbrough, 2007 and Sandulli and Chesbrough, 2009). Business model scholars also highlight the importance of customer orientation as a key characteristic of business models (Amit & Zott, 2001) and especially of open business models, whereby multiple actors co-create value for the same customer (Storbacka, Frow, Nenonen, & Payne, 2012). Solution customer centricity – the degree to which the focal firm focuses on solution customers in the joint delivery of solutions – is hence an important aspect in studying open business models involving partner networks. Although open business models are by definition closely linked to the establishment and management of external networks, research falls short in explaining the configuration of these networks and their impact on the performance of open business models. Understanding these relationships is of particular relevance for manufacturing companies facing the organizational challenge to become solution providers. A solution provider manufactures stand-alone products as well as bundling them with related services into solutions that solve customers' problems (Davies et al., 2006 and Galbraith, 2002). For these firms, utilizing services provided by partners in the network is an attractive means of achieving successful integrated solutions (Gebauer et al., 2013, Helander and Möller, 2008, Jaakkola and Hakanen, 2013, Martinez et al., 2010 and Windahl and Lakemond, 2006) and, in turn, successful open business models. Scholars have studied partner networks in the context of the development of new integrated solutions (Liu and Hart, 2011 and Windahl and Lakemond, 2006), but not the required network setup and logic for successful delivery of solutions. This raises two research questions we aim to answer in this article: Firstly, how do various network configurations in relation to service partners influence the performance of open business models? Secondly, what is the role of varying degrees of customer centricity of open business models in this setting? We study these questions in the context of solution providers as a good backdrop. To come to an answer we build on network theory, which argues that a network of relations of firms produces positive but also negative results (e.g., Lechner, Frankenberger, & Floyd, 2010). Positive effects include information benefits (Burt, 1992, Granovetter, 1985, Hansen, 1999 and Rindfleisch and Moorman, 2001), efficient knowledge transfer (Reagans and McEvily, 2003, Uzzi, 1996 and Uzzi, 1997), and access to resources (Gnyawali & Madhavan, 2001). Conversely, negative effects stem from reduced information benefits (e.g., Uzzi, 1997) and costs of maintaining additional ties (Burt, 1992). Such networks are characterized on the basis of three dimensions: the relational, the structural, and the cognitive (Lechner et al., 2010, Nahapiet and Ghoshal, 1998 and Simsek et al., 2003). Our results suggest patterns new to existing theory. We find the influence of networks on performance of open business models contingent on the level of customer centricity. That is, to ensure superior performance, different levels of solution customer centricity in the business model require different network configurations to service partners. The realization of these relationships contributes to the open business model, solution provider, and network fields.
نتیجه گیری انگلیسی
5.1. Conclusion The level of customer centricity is a useful way to explain how the three dimensions of networks with partners of open business models – tie strength, centrality, and shared vision – influence performance of firms. Based on these insights, we derive three ideal configurations of networks for open business models leading to superior firm performance contingent on the level of customer centricity, namely the controlled, the joint, and the supported model. They are summarized in Fig. 22.214.171.124. The controlled model We term the first configuration, whereby the product manufacturer keeps control of most aspects of the solution and customer relationship, the controlled model. Due to its focus on the solution customer, customer centricity in this business model configuration is very high. We argue in our propositions that an open business model with this property establishes relationships to a few key service partners with whom it builds up strong and reliable relationships. In addition, the level of shared vision between the solution provider and the service providers is strong. This case allows the solution provider to achieve superior performance with its open business model, since its level of customer centricity and partner network configuration is aligned. In our case analysis, 3M Services represents this type of open business model. 5.1.2. The joint model We term the second configuration, whereby the product manufacturer weakens its customer relationship and allows solution business for independent partners, the joint model. Relinquishing control enables the solution provider to weaken ties with service partners to a medium level but reach out to more to increase market reach, as is represented by a medium level of centrality. Shared vision between the solution provider and service partners is strong in this configuration. It leads to superior firm performance based on an open business model, represented by SAP in our cases. 5.1.3. The supported model The third configuration, whereby the product manufacturer relinquishes direct solution customer contact entirely, actively enabling partners to design and deliver solutions, is termed the supported model. Since no direct solution customer relationships exist, only a very low level of customer centricity is attributed to this model. As our propositions state, this is a viable option for a solution provider if the partner network is set up accordingly i.e. if it features a high level of centrality and weak partner ties. The level of shared vision is high. In our case analysis, Geberit represents this type of open business model. The models represent three ideal partner network configurations for open business models with varying degrees of customer centricity. They illustrate our propositions and demonstrate how customer centricity and partner network characteristics are aligned to achieve superior performance of open business models. While the controlled and supported models mark extreme positions in terms of customer centricity in open business models, the joint model shows there is also middle ground between them. 5.2. Implications for theory and practice With this article we seek to contribute to the growing body of knowledge on design of open business models. By focusing our analysis on solution providers incorporating externally sourced services into solution delivery, we apply the business model concept to a concrete environment of high practical relevance (Liu and Hart, 2011 and Windahl and Lakemond, 2006). This allows us to deliver knowledge relevant to both worlds: the underlying theoretical bodies of knowledge, and managerial practice of firms transitioning from manufacturer to solution provider. We show that high solution customer centricity, often seen as the key ingredient for open business models and for a solution provider strategy, is not the only option for firm success. Through the rise of business services and open business models incorporating partner networks, customer centricity changes its role. It acts as a moderator, shaping the partner network and determining interactions with partners.