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|کد مقاله||سال انتشار||مقاله انگلیسی||ترجمه فارسی||تعداد کلمات|
|8015||2010||16 صفحه PDF||سفارش دهید||11685 کلمه|
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Publisher : Elsevier - Science Direct (الزویر - ساینس دایرکت)
Journal : Computer Networks, Volume 54, Issue 10, 1 July 2010, Pages 1630–1645
Wireless sensor networks (WSNs) comprise a large number of sensor nodes, which are spread out within a region to be monitored and communicate using wireless links. In some WSN applications, recognizing boundary nodes is important for topology discovery, geographic routing, tracking and guiding. In this paper, we study the problem of identifying the boundary nodes of a WSN. In a WSN, close-by nodes can establish direct communications with their neighbors and have the ability to estimate distances to nearby nodes, but not necessarily the true distances. Our objective is to find the boundary nodes by using only the connectivity relation and neighbor distance information without any other knowledge of node locations. Moreover, our main aim is to design a distributed algorithm that works even when the average degree is low. We propose a heuristic algorithm to find the boundary nodes which are connected in a boundary cycle of a location-free, low density (average degree 5–6), randomly deployed WSN. We develop the key ideas of our boundary detection algorithm in the centralized scenario and extend these ideas to the distributed scenario. The distributed implementation is more realistic for real WSNs, especially for sparse networks when all local information cannot be collected very well due to sparse connectivity. In addition, the distributed implementation can tolerate faults by recomputing the boundary locally when a boundary node is faulty. Simulations in ns-2 show that the distributed implementation outperforms the centralized one with higher quality of boundaries.
Rapid improvement in wireless communication and electronics technologies have enabled the development of small, low-cost, low-power, multifunctional devices, sensor nodes. A sensor node (or mote) is a battery-powered device with integrated sensing, processing and communication capabilities. It can detect and monitor changes in a variety of physical conditions, such as temperature, humidity, light, sound, chemicals, or the presence of certain objects . Nodes can perform simple computations and communicate with each other over short distances using radio. A wireless sensor network (WSN) is composed of hundreds to thousands of unattended sensor nodes and one or more base stations. The sensor nodes are deployed either densely or sparsely, manually or randomly, in a region to be monitored, for example, natural environments, battlefields, hospitals, houses and industries. The arrangement and management of a WSN depends on the application for which it is used, such as military, environmental, health, home and some commercial applications . In some WSN applications, recognizing boundary nodes is necessary for topology discovery , ,  and , geographic routing  and , tracking and guiding . In the applications that involve tracking moving objects, such as in military applications for tracking enemy vehicles and detecting illegal border crossings, and in environmental applications for habitat monitoring , boundary detection is vital in order to detect objects entering or leaving the monitoring region , ,  and . During the network’s lifetime, nodes on the boundary are required to keep sensing at all times to detect objects that enter the monitoring region, while other nodes sleep to conserve energy. With the assumption that the objects move from outside into the monitoring area and there are no sensing gaps between two neighboring nodes on the boundary, objects can be detected by one or more boundary nodes when they cross the boundary. When an object is detected, a detection message is broadcast by a cluster head to its neighboring nodes to continue tracking the object. The cluster head is elected among nodes that can sense the object at that time and has the highest remaining energy. Any nodes, which receive the detection message and can sense the object, elect among themselves a new cluster head to broadcast the next detection message. This monitoring task of “sense-communicate-sense” is carried out by sensor nodes along the object’s track until the object leaves the region. We illustrate an overview of a WSN for tracking a moving object in Fig. 1a and the corresponding graph model for the WSN in Fig. 1b. A sensor node corresponds to a vertex in the graph and a connectivity relation between nodes corresponds to an edge between the corresponding vertices in the graph. A cycle in a graph is a closed curve of edges that consists of m distinct vertices with m⩾3m⩾3. A boundary cycle of a WSN is the outer cycle of the network which separates the monitoring region from the outside world. Boundary nodes are sensor nodes which lie on the boundary cycle and non-boundary nodes are sensor nodes which are not on the boundary.The problem of detecting boundary nodes is simplified if the exact location of each sensor node is known. Unfortunately, building a large scale WSN with special location hardware such as GPS embedded in the nodes is not practical  because it is neither cost effective nor energy efficient. The price of GPS is expensive compared to the nodes themselves and it consumes a considerable amount of nodes’ energy that will lead to short lifetime networks. Furthermore, GPS cannot function well in a closed place where the microwave signal from the satellites is blocked by obstacles. In addition, the size of GPS can change the structure of the nodes that are required to be small by many applications. In this paper, we propose a novel heuristic algorithm to find boundary cycles of randomly deployed WSNs. We have three motivations behind our boundary detection algorithm, which become the contributions of this paper. Firstly, the aim is to design a fault-tolerant algorithm that does not require location information. Secondly, the algorithm must be decentralized that does not rely on one central node. So, it can perform local computation to tolerate faults. Thirdly and the most important motivation is to design an algorithm that works even when the average degree is low (average degree 5–6). This is definitely the case compared to other algorithms in the literature , , , ,  and  that assume high average degree. We choose low-degree networks with average degree 5–6, because it is possible to construct data gathering trees in such networks for sensor reporting. Our boundary detection algorithm will be practical to use in location-free and low-degree WSNs as most practical networks are of this kind. We find boundary cycle where two neighboring boundary nodes are within communication range of each other. So, any processes that need boundary nodes to exchange information along the cycle can do so. In this algorithm, we only assume each node can communicate directly with its neighbors and has a mechanism to estimate distances to nearby nodes, but not necessarily the true distances. We do not assume any geographical information as in , our assumption on average degree is not as high as the average degree assumed in , , , ,  and  and we do not assume uniform node distribution. Moreover, compared to the related work in , our work improves on sparse networks because the algorithm in  fails for low density networks. We develop the key ideas of our boundary detection algorithm in the centralized scenario. Then, we extend these ideas to the distributed scenario, which is more realistic for running in real networks. We consider the need for the distributed algorithm for sparse networks where all local information cannot be collected very well due to sparse connectivity. The distributed algorithm can also tolerate faults, because it can recompute the boundary locally if a boundary node dies or loses connectivity. In our experimental study, we implement the algorithm for both centralized and distributed scenarios using noisy distance measurements. We consider faulty distances because in the practical WSN, even distances estimated by using received signal strength indication (RSSI) or ultrasound techniques inevitably have noise ,  and . Our simulation shows that the distributed implementation outperforms the centralized one, especially for sparse networks. The centralized implementation depends on the connectivity of the network to a base station that performs the whole computation. Consequently, for low density networks, the algorithm cannot find boundaries in partitions of the network that cannot establish connection to the base station. This condition leads to a low quality of boundary discovery. On the contrary, the distributed implementation is reliable and practical for real WSNs deployment. In low-degree networks, it has higher quality of boundaries compared to the centralized implementation. The remainder of this paper is organized as follows. In Section 2, we briefly review the related work on boundary detection. We present the proposed algorithm for finding boundary cycles in Section 3. In Sections 4 and 5, we describe the centralized implementation and the distributed implementation of the algorithm, respectively. We show some of our simulation results in Section 6 and finally, Section 7 concludes the paper.
نتیجه گیری انگلیسی
In this paper, we present a novel heuristic algorithm to find boundary cycles of randomly deployed WSNs. The algorithm only uses approximate neighbor distance information, but not necessarily the exact measurement. Our approach has three contributions. Firstly, our algorithm is fault-tolerant that does not require location information. Secondly, the algorithm is decentralized that does not rely on one central node. Thirdly, which becomes the main contribution is finding boundary cycles in low density networks. The existing boundary detection algorithms, which assume high average degree, tend to fail in sparse networks. On the other hand, our algorithm works well in this kind of network. We develop the key ideas of the algorithm in the centralized scenario and extend these ideas to the distributed scenario, which is more realistic for real WSNs. We consider the need for the distributed algorithm for sparse networks where all local information cannot be collected very well due to sparse connectivity. Furthermore, algorithms that require multi-hop communication are prone to failure due to unreliable communication links. We have implemented and tested our algorithm in the centralized and the distributed scenarios using ns-2. We have shown that the algorithm is robust to erroneous distance measurements, accurate in boundary discovery and efficient in energy consumption. We show that our algorithm is robust by comparing the results of the simulation using the true distances, the 20% and the 50% faulty distances. We show the accuracy of our algorithm by using two metrics: precision and coverage to measure the quality of the discovered boundaries. Moreover, we evaluate the energy efficiency of our algorithm by calculating the energy consumption per node during the boundary discovery process. Even though the distributed implementation consumes more energy than the centralized implementation, we were able to show that our distributed algorithm outperforms the centralized one by higher accuracy of boundary discovery, especially for low density networks. The distributed implementation is suitable for real networks because the boundary cycles cover most of the networks’ area.