دانلود مقاله ISI انگلیسی شماره 8357
عنوان فارسی مقاله

پیاده سازی نرم افزار منبع باز در بخش دولتی بریتانیا: شواهدی از زمینه و پیامدها برای آینده

کد مقاله سال انتشار مقاله انگلیسی ترجمه فارسی تعداد کلمات
8357 2005 18 صفحه PDF سفارش دهید محاسبه نشده
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عنوان انگلیسی
Open Source Software implementation in the UK public sector: Evidence from the field and implications for the future
منبع

Publisher : Elsevier - Science Direct (الزویر - ساینس دایرکت)

Journal : International Journal of Information Management, Volume 25, Issue 5, October 2005, Pages 411–428

کلمات کلیدی
نرم افزار منبع باز - پیاده سازی - بخش دولتی - مدیریت اطلاعات
پیش نمایش مقاله
پیش نمایش مقاله پیاده سازی نرم افزار منبع باز در بخش دولتی بریتانیا: شواهدی از زمینه و پیامدها برای آینده

چکیده انگلیسی

Open Source Software (OSS) is a model of computer software development where the source code is available for programmers to view, read, modify and re-distribute without the property right restrictions of proprietary software. OSS has existed as a model for developing computer applications and software since the 1950s. However, OSS has only found its way into the public arena within the past decade due to some major projects gaining significant market share from commercial developers such as Microsoft. Research in the area of OSS has become more extensive in recent years and has examined areas such as motivation of programmers as well as the benefits of OSS. However, literature focusing on the actual implementation of OSS is more limited with only Fitzgerald and Kenny [(2004). Developing an information infrastructure with Open Source Software. IEEE Software, 50–55] providing any substantial analysis of how it might be achieved. In this paper the focus is on OSS use and implementation within the UK public sector. This sector has a history of resource wastage and underperforming information systems. The underpinning issues of motivation and benefits to organisations will be addressed along with the difficulties that the UK Government faces in adopting an OSS strategy. Section 2 examines the existing literature in the area and explores why OSS should be adopted and implemented by the public sector in the UK. Section 3 considers the research approach taken and the results obtained from considering the implementation of OSS in eight government organisations. Section 4 concludes with a discussion and some implications for those organisations in the public sector who might wish to take this approach.

مقدمه انگلیسی

Open Source Software (OSS) is a model of computer software development where the source code is available for programmers to view, read, modify and re-distribute without the property right restrictions of proprietary software. This model allows constant innovation by individuals who may be geographically widely distributed. The resulting Open Source programs may be available free of charge, although depending on licensing arrangements this does not always hold true. OSS has existed as a model for developing computer applications and software since the 1950s. The Internet was developed in Open Source environments (Newman, 1999). The UNIX operating system was developed in the 1970s as a simple operating system with re-usable code (Open Group, 2003). However, OSS has only found its way into the public arena within the past decade due to some major projects gaining significant market share from commercial developers such as Microsoft (Dubash, 2005). The terminology ‘free software’ was created by the Free Software Foundation (FSF) formed in 1984 and the mission of this organisation as stated by the founder, Richard Stallman was ‘to provide freedom to programmers’ (UNESCO, 2001) lost when UNIX systems were largely commercialised and their source closed (Wheeler, 2003). This software was described as free as in ‘free speech’ not as in ‘free beer’ (GNU, 2004), meaning it could be sold but the underpinning code of projects must be available to allow future innovation. The name ‘Open Source’ came from a decision in 1997 of the OSS initiative that wrote the ‘Open Source’ definition that requires the availability of program source code and also includes rules on licensing and discrimination in OSS projects (Perens, 1997). Research in the area of OSS has become more extensive in recent years and has examined areas such as motivation of programmers (Bonaccorsi & Rossi, 2003; Haruvy, Prasad, & Sethi, 2003; Hertel, Niedner, & Herrmann, 2003; Lakhani & Wolf, 2003; Lerner & Tirole (2001) and Lerner & Tirole (2002)) as well as the benefits of OSS (Kogut & Metiu, 2001; Spinellis & Szyperski, 2004). However, literature focusing on the actual implementation of OSS is more limited with only Fitzgerald and Kenny (2004) providing any substantial analysis of how it might be achieved. There are now white papers on OSS from the UK Office for Government Commerce and the NHS Information Authority (NHSIA) setting out plans for investigating and implementing OSS applications. Nevertheless, it appears that only Applewhite (2003) and McDonald et al. (2003) have provided any insight into the potential government benefits of using OSS. In this paper the focus will be on OSS use within the UK public sector. This sector has a history of resource wastage and underperforming information systems (IS) and even as this paper is being written yet another Government system at the Department of Work and Pensions (DWP) has crashed leaving many people without benefits (BBC, 26 November 2004). The underpinning issues of motivation and benefits to organisations will be addressed along with the difficulties that the UK Government faces with this type of strategy. Section 2 will examine the existing literature in the area and explores why OSS should be adopted and implemented by the public sector in the UK. Section 3 will consider the research approach taken and the results obtained from considering the implementation of OSS in eight government organisations. Section 4 concludes with a discussion and some implications for those organisations in the public sector who might wish to take this approach.

نتیجه گیری انگلیسی

Open Source Software (OSS) is increasing in popularity as it has the potential to reverse the virtual monopolies of some of the major proprietary software suppliers. This monopoly has to some degree stifled software creativity and allowed certain powerful individuals to dictate industry standards and policy. OSS has to some extent revived the enterprise spirit of the programming community and has started to bring competitive choice and freedom back to the software marketplace. In addition OSS's development process is creating innovative products that are reliable, secure, practical and have high usability and performance ratings. Users are now not only benefiting from the OSS revolution but also from the improved proprietary software development that is being forced upon suppliers in order to maintain competitive advantage. Technical support for OSS is growing and businesses are gaining in confidence in the knowledge that their software has a future and that they as an organisation will have some say in and some control over its direction. From a UK public sector perspective where money is not freely available OSS may provide the means to develop products and services that are cost effective and manifestly robust. However, OSS may never have a large take up in central government departments unless there is a determined effort to restore some of the IT competencies lost over many years to outsourcing and share the organisational knowledge needed to integrate OSS applications with current applications. The big question is how do you reverse this trend without growing the large Government IT departments of the 1980s? This is a very difficult question and one that has no immediate answer. The Government of the UK would need to overhaul its national IT strategy and pull back from some of its outsourcing deals with companies such as EDI. This could take years and would mean a huge investment in a new IT infrastructure. In the NHS the National Programme for IT project has put even more power into the hands of ‘strategic partners’ such as Accenture and has forced the various PCT and Hospital Trusts to accept systems that they have had very little consultation in developing (Computer Weekly, 26 February 2005). Realistically, the current UK Government cannot be seen to falter on these programs and therefore in the short term this is unlikely to happen. OSS implementation will only take place where there is a degree of autonomy and where the IT skills are readily available. Thus, we are looking at Local Government organisations. If, however, these organisations were to band together they might be able to exert a certain amount of pressure on Central Government. This may come about if regional assemblies gain authority. The outlook for OSS in the UK public sector is still uncertain and may never become established

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