یکپارچه سازی اصول طراحی خدمات و فناوری اطلاعات برای بهبود تحویل و بهره وری در عملیات بخش دولتی: مورد کارولینای جنوبی دی ام وی
|کد مقاله||سال انتشار||مقاله انگلیسی||ترجمه فارسی||تعداد کلمات|
|8362||2006||16 صفحه PDF||سفارش دهید||محاسبه نشده|
Publisher : Elsevier - Science Direct (الزویر - ساینس دایرکت)
Journal : Journal of Operations Management, Volume 24, Issue 4, June 2006, Pages 347–362
One relatively unanswered question regarding operational efficiency and effectiveness is whether and how public sector or government operations can employ service strategy and design concepts to deal with the conflicting objectives of minimizing expenditures while providing for an increasing number of “causes” [Haywood-Farmer, J., Nollet, J., 1991. Service Plus: Effective Service Management, G. Morin Publisher, Quebec]. In this paper, we argue that the mechanism that permits or enables simultaneous success on these dimensions in public sector operations is information technology applied in conjunction with a unified set of service operations concepts. To demonstrate this contention, we employ an adaptation of the Goldstein et al. [Goldstein, S.M., Johnston, R., Duffy, J., Rao, J., 2002. The service concept: the missing link in service design research? Journal of Operations Management 20 (2), 121–134] service planning design framework, taking issue with some interpretative aspects of their strategic model. The modified planning framework was applied to an initiative in South Carolina state government to improve operations and technology deployment at the Department of Motor Vehicles (DMV). The detailed and ongoing case study illustrates the utility of a broad service-based, IT-enabled approach to designing a government service, while simultaneously demonstrating that operational service alignment is the key to avoiding results that have long been labeled a dilemma in the public sector.
Torn by a variety of stakeholders and changing missions, public agencies have typically been unable to achieve enduring efficiency in their operations (Corrigan and Joyce, 2000). Coupled with a need to provide socially equitable outcomes, the inconsistent definition of, and concern for, accountability leaves organizations with a ‘productivity paradox’ and a service dilemma wherein years of spending on structure and infrastructure do not seem to have led to long-term gains in either productivity or effectiveness. Despite these well-known and historical difficulties, recent pressures on public expenditures have made it essential that public administrators continue to search for ways to increase productivity while simultaneously enhancing responsiveness to citizens’ needs (Lee and Perry, 2002 and Lenk, 2002). Interestingly, the debate about how to best accomplish these things has increasingly been couched in terms of business and process management terminology and has focused upon information technology (IT) as the principal enabler. Despite intense criticism from many authors in the public administration realm (e.g., Fountain, 2001), attention continues to be focused upon the citizen as customer, with federal and state agencies attempting to develop service or quality-based models that wisely employ current information technologies and simultaneously guarantee “effective, efficient, and responsive government” (Danziger and Andersen, 2002). At the same time, the problems of government services and public service operations have historically been understudied in the operations management literature. In a comparison of modern OM research and practice, Slack et al. (2004) recently noted that there are gaps between research and practice in terms of both sectoral and content priorities. Their discussion is focused more broadly on the relative paucity of research oriented more generally toward services, while their data demonstrate that government services typically account for a substantial portion of GDP (in 2001, approximately 12.7 and 24.0% of GDP in the US and UK, respectively). Yet very few studies in the OM journals report on the application of theories to government services and virtually none have developed specific theories to help guide public administrators. On the other hand, the service operations literature would seem like a logical place to find and refine theories and concepts that can help to structure and improve public sector operations through the effective use of information technology. In this paper, we illustrate, using a detailed case study, how service operations concepts and information technology can be synergistically employed to attain the operational goals of public sector organizations. In particular, we review the relevant literatures in the services area and explain how we adapted and tested a framework for designing an approach to strategic planning and service delivery for the South Carolina Department of Motor Vehicles (SC DMV). Using the detailed case, we highlight how government operations may be able to leverage existing service management models in combination with information technology solutions. We conclude the paper with a proposed framework to classify government services and a discussion of insights into directions for future OM research to understand and improve public service operations.
نتیجه گیری انگلیسی
Details of the specific implementation plan to automate transactions are shown in Fig. 6. Simple transactions that have been moved on-line in other states were the focus of the first “move”, with more detailed and complex transactions automated in sequence. Transactions that involved other parties (auto dealers, etc.) will be moved on-line as soon as the internal transaction systems have been adequately installed.To facilitate front office operations, several-day long training sessions for all DMV employees have also been undertaken since the summer of 2003. At the present time, signs are already evident of an overwhelmingly positive response to system changes. Some of these are anecdotal but a number of objective measures have also seen dramatic improvement. (Furthermore, and importantly, the only changes to the entire DMV system that have been made since the start of the study have been those in the recommendation set described here. The across-the-board results that have been seen are clearly the result of the changes made from this study.) Specifically, 1. Lines have quickly grown shorter, alleviating one of the most common complaints about DMV offices. While monthly transaction volumes at DMV branch offices across the state had increased approximately 6.9% over the year preceding this study, average wait times have now declined 87.9%! To facilitate individual needs, the new ‘system’ also reports the most recent wait times on the web so that customers may make an assessment of what to expect. 2. The percentage of citizens completing their transactions on the web has increased each month since the system changes were implemented. The largest DMV branch in the state completed 16,096 transactions in face-to-face contact with citizens during September of 2003. During the same period, 18,434 were successfully completed on the web (statewide) without personal contact with DMV personnel. This would indicate that the workload of one large office has already been eliminated. 3. Overall, a high percentage (62.9%) of web transactions is being successfully completed without intervention. This ‘percentage completed’ will increase as the DMV web site is continually improved and citizens are able to navigate the site more efficiently. 4. The top four web transaction types to date have been driver status inquiries, address changes, driver's license modifications, and driver's license renewals, all items that have historically required significant labor time. 5. Customers have regularly commented on better process flows and the availability of “greeters” and better signage to direct them upon arrival. These data will be better captured as the performance measurement system is installed. 6. Positive articles have been written (and have continually appeared) in various newspapers across the state as changes have been implemented. 7. The number of complaints (via telephone, by letter, and in person) has decreased by more than 50%. Publicly, the DMV has recently adopted the following statement to explain what is happening: “Our goal is to provide (citizens) with quality services and information in the most efficient, effective and professional manner possible.” While the intent is clearly laudable, success will be determined only after the system changes have been in place for some time and procedures have been internalized.