دلبستگی اضطرابی شاگرد و بازخورد آن در روابط مشاوره
|کد مقاله||سال انتشار||تعداد صفحات مقاله انگلیسی||ترجمه فارسی|
|8435||2010||8 صفحه PDF||سفارش دهید|
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Publisher : Elsevier - Science Direct (الزویر - ساینس دایرکت)
Journal : Journal of Vocational Behavior, Volume 77, Issue 1, August 2010, Pages 73–80
A model focused on protégé anxious attachment and feedback in mentoring relationships was tested with a sample of matched doctoral student protégés and their faculty mentors. Results show that protégé anxious attachment was associated with less feedback seeking and less feedback acceptance. Protégé feedback acceptance was associated with both the quality and frequency of feedback provided by the mentor. Frequency, but not quality of mentor feedback, was associated with protégé scholarly productivity. Results underscore the value of focusing on specific behavioral aspects of the mentoring process.
Attachment theory provides a theoretical platform for understanding feedback within mentoring relationships. The basic tenet of attachment theory is that we form relatively stable attachment styles in early childhood based on interactions with our primary caregiver (Bowlby, 1969). One's working attachment model influences reactions to relational events, creating “systematic patterns of expectations, needs, emotions, emotion regulation strategies and social behavior” (Shaver & Mikulincer, 2002, p. 134). Those with a secure attachment are comfortable with intimacy and autonomy. Secure attachment is a life span need, thus, these attachment styles continue to influence our relational styles in adulthood (Hazan & Shaver, 1987). As an interpersonal relationship, mentorships can serve attachment functions (e.g., Noe et al., 2002 and Wang et al., 2009). As noted by Noe et al., attachment theory may provide insight into how prior interpersonal relational experiences shape the way that protégés approach mentoring relationships. This may be especially true in student–faculty mentoring relationships given that the faculty member often serves a parental-type role. Current attachment theory suggests that there are two adult attachment dimensions, anxiety and avoidance (e.g., Brennan, Clark, & Shaver, 1998). The anxiety dimension is associated with a negative model of the self (Brennan et al., 1998). Because the purpose of the present study was to investigate feedback within the mentoring relationship, which poses a threat to the self, we focused on the anxiety dimension. Individuals with greater attachment-related anxiety are preoccupied with thoughts about relationships and the need for approval. They are often worried about whether their partner is available, responsive, and attentive. Based on theory and research from the feedback literature, there are reasons to expect that individuals with a more anxious attachment style may be less likely to seek feedback and be less accepting of feedback provided. Although feedback serves several important functions in organizational behavior, such as permitting individuals to adjust their goal directed behavior, better assess their capabilities, and become socialized into new environments (Anseel, Lievens, & Levy, 2007), there are also costs (Ashford, 1986). Individuals may be concerned that seeking feedback will convey uncertainty to others. Feedback seeking could be viewed as a sign of low ability or of insecurity (Williams, Miller, Steelman, & Levy, 1999). Soliciting feedback carries the risk of hearing negative information about the self. Because individuals are highly motivated to defend and protect their egos (Baumeister, 1999), they may avoid feedback for self-protection purposes (Ashford & Cummings, 1983). This is likely to be more pronounced in anxiously attached individuals, as they tend to doubt themselves as a relationship partner. Feedback seeking also may be avoided because feedback based on active solicitation is more difficult to disregard than is unsolicited feedback (Roberson, Deitch, Brief, & Block, 2003). Anxiously attached individuals may also be less receptive to feedback. Attachment behavior is most likely to be activated in situations that involve threat, stress, or challenge, all of which could occur when a mentor provides feedback (Feeney, 2005). When anxious attachment behavior is triggered it also activates accessibility of negative self-thoughts, causing individuals to be especially defensive when receiving personal feedback (Broemer & Blumle, 2003). Another relevant aspect of anxious attachment is negative appraisal of others' attempts to offer help. Feedback provided by others is likely to be viewed with mistrust (Bowlby, 1988). Prior research has shown that college students with preoccupation attachment tendencies (a component of anxious attachment) have difficulty seeking help from others and are mistrustful of those who offer guidance (Larose & Bernier, 2001). In summary, there is considerable theoretical and empirical evidence to suggest that protégés with an anxious attachment style are likely to avoid feedback seeking behavior and be less accepting of feedback provided. Hypothesis 1a. Protégé anxious attachment negatively relates to protégé feedback seeking. Hypothesis 1b. Protégé anxious attachment negatively relates to protégé feedback acceptance. The feedback seeking actions of the protégé should relate to the frequency of feedback provided by the mentor. Within the feedback literature we are not aware of research that has linked target feedback seeking and acceptance with other feedback frequency. However, protégé feedback seeking may be viewed as a form of proactive behavior, and within the mentoring literature there is some evidence that protégé proactive behaviors are associated with more mentoring received (Turban & Lee, 2007). Thus, we expect that protégé feedback seeking will prompt the mentor to provide more frequent feedback to the protégé. Hypothesis 2. Protégé feedback seeking positively relates to frequency of mentor feedback. The extent that the protégé accepts feedback is also important. Research has shown that mentors desire protégés who are open to feedback. Mentors interviewed by Allen et al. (1997) reported that they were more likely to provide mentoring to others who were receptive to advice. Huwe and Johnson (2003) note that in order to maintain a successful doctoral student–mentor relationship it is essential for protégés to avoid becoming defensive, angry or deflated in response to mentor feedback. Protégé feedback acceptance sends a message to the mentor that feedback is wanted and appreciated. Accordingly, mentors may be more motivated to provide feedback and strive to provide feedback that is of high quality. Hypothesis 3a. Protégé feedback acceptance positively relates to frequency of mentor feedback. Hypothesis 3b. Protégé feedback acceptance positively relates to quality of mentor feedback. Finally, we predict that feedback frequency and quality relate to protégé scholarly productivity. Frequent and high quality feedback from the mentor should enable the protégé to develop and be productive as a student scholar. Feedback is an important component of motivational theories such as goal-setting theory (Locke and Latham, 1990 and Locke and Latham, 2002) and control theory (Carver & Scheier, 2000). Both of these theories view behavior as goal directed and suggest that feedback helps individuals evaluate performance relative to their goals. Feedback may be particularly integral to performance in doctoral mentoring relationships as the research and publication process involve a skill set that is difficult to learn without the expert guidance of someone knowledgeable about the process. Although the relationship between feedback and productivity has not been studied within mentoring relationships, the overall effect of feedback on performance has been positive (Kluger & DeNisi, 1996). In addition, there is some evidence that higher quality mentoring provided by doctoral advisors is associated with student protégé productivity (Paglis et al., 2006). Hypothesis 4. Mentor feedback frequency relates positively to protégé productivity. Hypothesis 5. Mentor feedback quality relates positively to protégé productivity.
نتیجه گیری انگلیسی
Our findings provide novel insights into mentoring relationships. To our knowledge this is the first study to directly examine feedback. We linked feedback to protégé anxious attachment and to protégé productivity. Given the important role that mentoring plays in individual growth and development, as well as the growing use of mentoring as an employee development tool, a better understanding of factors that can improve its effectiveness is needed (Allen, Finkelstein, & Poteet, 2009). The results support the value of continued study of individual differences as well as specific behavioral variables in mentoring relationships.