دیدگاه مشاوران: دانش آموز دختر سیاه پوست ورزشکار
|کد مقاله||سال انتشار||مقاله انگلیسی||ترجمه فارسی||تعداد کلمات|
|8436||2010||13 صفحه PDF||سفارش دهید||محاسبه نشده|
Publisher : Elsevier - Science Direct (الزویر - ساینس دایرکت)
Journal : Sport Management Review, Volume 13, Issue 4, November 2010, Pages 382–394
The purpose of this study was to understand Black female collegiate athletes’ perception of mentors and the characteristics of their current mentors. Understanding their definition of a mentor and the persons whom fulfill the psychosocial and career mentor roles will provide insight on the mentor–mentee relationship. In addition, the researchers found it necessary to ascertain the persons whom fulfill the athletic mentor role due to the collegiate athletic status. This study is approached from a critical feminist lens, utilizing a qualitative questionnaire to capture and analyze the voice and perceptions of the Black female athletes (n = 38) from two Division I universities. Critical race theory and Black feminist thought were employed to capture the “multiple jeopardies” of the Black female athlete, thus recognizing race, or racism, and gender, or sexism, are at the fore of their daily experiences. The findings revealed Black female athletes’ definitions of a mentor were characterized by the traditional mentor qualities such as a guide, a supporter, and a role model. Further analysis indicated the women had three distinctly different persons to fulfill each mentor dimension to include: career/academic support, psychosocial support, and athletic support. However, the characteristics of those persons who fulfilled each dimension were family members, with greater influence by the coach on the athletic support dimension. Based on the findings it would benefit administrators to recognize these characteristics and persons of influence when providing support services and developmental programs for the Black female collegiate athlete.
It has been stated that Black women in society are experiencing “double jeopardy”, or marginalization, based on their racial and gender status (Beale, 1970). King (2007), professor in sociology, has expanded this notion to “multiple jeopardy”, to include class marginalization; and, as such, the Black female collegiate athlete is no exception. In addition to societal marginalization, the Black women is often silenced and “longing or yearning for critical voice and empowerment” (Smith, 2000, p. 174). Emphasizing the significance of empowerment, this paper examines the concept of mentoring, and the mentorship of the Black female collegiate athlete. The concept of mentorship has numerous definitions much of which is dependent on the context. The purpose of this paper is to discern how the Black female collegiate athletes whom attend a predominantly white institution (PWI) define mentorship and the factors they desire when choosing a mentor. In the realm of higher education, the Black female still faces limited opportunities and daily challenges, and as such she is deemed an at-risk population (Packard, 2003 and Simon et al., 2004). Administrators and faculty have acknowledged the racial and gender disparity within the ranks and the need for increased diversity within predominantly white institutions. By utilizing mentoring theories, efforts have been made to rectify the disparities and assist in the recruitment and retention of people of color (Johnson-Bailey and Cevero, 2004, Ortiz-Walters and Gilson, 2005 and Simon et al., 2004). Limited studies have investigated mentoring effects for Black women; however, there are a few studies which acknowledge the challenges and barriers in the advancement of Black women in academe (e.g., Atwater, 1995, Bowman et al., 1999, Jennings et al., 1998 and Simon et al., 2004). For example, Simon et al. (2004) discuss Black women faculty have limited opportunities and access than the dominant (e.g., White/Caucasian) population. These factors are few but significant, and the concepts of mentoring are attributable to the lives of the Black female student-athlete. According to Person, Benson-Quaziena, and Rogers (2001) the student-athletes of color and female student-athletes, like the aforementioned faculty, “are the most visible of historically underrepresented groups in higher education” (p. 55). The high visibility and marginalized treatment is often characterized by stereotypes, alienation, and isolation (Harrison et al., 2006, Hawkins, 2001, Lawrence, 2005 and Sailes, 1998). Thus, student development practitioners promote a culturally sensitive and holistic approach when serving students (see Person et al., 2001), or cultural competence (see Cross, 1991, Pinderhughes, 1989 and Sue and Sue, 1990). Considering the factors described, the concept of mentoring could prove a worthy option for academic, social, and athletic achievement for the Black females whom participate in National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) governed programs within the PWI. 1.1. Defining mentor The term mentor has numerous definitions, which is dependent on the context. Through researching the term, we found several operational definitions dating back as far as Greek mythology (Kram, 1985). Thus, it is necessary to present the various definitions; while, at the same time presenting definitions pertinent to the current study and the collegiate athletic environment. The first attempt to explicate the concept “mentor” was Levinson, Darrow, Klein, Levinson, and McKee (1978), Seasons of a Man's Life. This seminal work, which began in the psychological discipline, attempted to lay the foundation for the mentor relationship stating: The mentor relationship is one of the most complex, and developmentally important, a man can have in early adulthood…The term ‘mentor’ is generally used in a much narrower sense, to mean teacher, advisor, sponsor. …Mentoring is defined not in terms of formal roles but in terms of the character of the relationship and the functions it serves. (pp. 97–98) Thus, mentor was characterized as a necessary guide for an individual growing into adulthood. Other disciplines adopted and built upon the foundational definition, such as management, organizational behavior, sport management, and higher education. In reference to management and organizational behavior, Kram (1985) conducted further research establishing mentor had originated from Greek mythology, characterizing mentorship as a bond between an older experienced adult with a younger adult. Ultimately, describing a mentor as one whom “…support, guides, and counsels the young adult as he or she accomplishes this important task” (Kram, 1985, p. 2). Levinson et al. (1978) and Kram (1985) present a broad, yet comprehensive operational definition for a mentor. Conversely, there is a dearth of research and subsequent definitions in sport (e.g., Bloom et al., 1998 and Perna et al., 1996) and sport management (e.g., Pastore, 2003 and Weaver and Chelladurai, 1999). Sport and sport management researchers have examined the mentoring relationship with practitioners (e.g., academic professors), administrators (e.g., collegiate athletic coaches), and the student-athlete (e.g., Baucom and Lantz, 2001, Bloom et al., 1998, Harrison et al., 2006, Pastore, 2003, Perna et al., 1996 and Weaver and Chelladurai, 1999). That stated, Weaver and Chelladurai (1999) provide an operational definition which states mentoring is “a process in which a more experienced person (i.e., the mentor) serves as a role model, provides guidance and support to a developing novice (i.e., the protégé), and sponsors that individual's career progress” (p. 25). Therefore, sport practitioners and administrators are not resistant to mentoring, as it is a necessary factor in academic success and career development. Nevertheless, how does this translate into the collegiate athletic context? Few studies specific to mentoring have been conducted within the context of collegiate athletics (see Bloom et al., 1998, Comeaux and Harrison, 2006, Comeaux and Harrison, 2007, Harrison et al., 2006 and Perna et al., 1996). For the purpose of this paper, research examining mentoring, the student-athlete, gender, race/ethnicity, and the intercollegiate environment is of interest (see Comeaux and Harrison, 2006 and Comeaux and Harrison, 2007). More specifically in 2006, Comeaux and Harrison examined the relationship between gender (e.g., male and female) and sport participation in the realm of higher education. This quantitative study found few differences between gender interaction and contact with university faculty; still, the authors’ recommended the need for qualitative research to explicate student-athletes’ relationships with university faculty and to determine the intricacies of the institutional environment. Additionally in 2007, the authors explored the interaction between racial and/or ethnicity in respect to the male student-athletes’ academic achievement. Similar to their 2006 study, Comeaux and Harrison found differences in White male and Black male student-athlete interaction with university faculty. The differences stemmed from entering grade point average (GPA), current GPA, social alienation and isolation, racial discrimination, and limited time for social interaction. Based on their findings, Comeaux and Harrison's (2007) recommendations allude to culturally and achievement specific mentoring strategies which acknowledge racial and athletic prejudice and stereotypes. Lastly, the authors suggest future research engagements present the voice, or qualitative practices, to understand the depths of faculty interaction and the university environments. While generalizations cannot be made from these studies, there is merit in mentoring student-athletes. In the realm of higher education, there is an opportunity to empower and engage student-athletes in a number of activities. As previously stated, mentoring in the realm of higher education is a necessary element in developing young people. However, it must be noted in higher education mentoring has focused on faculty development (e.g., tenure track assistant professors and associate professors) (Perna and Lerner, 1995 and Sands et al., 1991), racial minorities (e.g., African American, Hispanic) (Johnson-Bailey and Cevero, 2004, LaVant et al., 1997, Lee, 1999, Ortiz-Walters and Gilson, 2005 and Simon et al., 2004), gender minorities (e.g., women) (Liang et al., 2002, Packard, 2003, Packard et al., 2004 and Simon et al., 2004), undergraduate (Cramer and Prentice-Dunn, 2007 and Jacobi, 1991), and graduate students (Rose, 2003, Stromei, 2000 and Welch, 1996), and not the student-athlete. Lester and Johnson (1981) express mentoring is a “one-to-one learning relationship between older person and younger person that is based on modeling behavior and extended dialogue between them” (p. 119). Thus, mentoring in higher education carries the same sentiment of Levinson et al. (1978), Kram (1985), and Weaver and Chelladurai (1999), each acknowledging a relationship characterized by mutual communication and role modeling, a relationship deemed beneficial to student-athletes. 1.2. Benefits of mentoring The benefits of mentoring are numerous, akin to the operational definitions. Nevertheless, Jacobi (1991) provides a comprehensive analysis listing mentoring benefits and three central components necessary for the mentor–protégé relationship. First, the mentor's ability to provide direct assistance with career and professional development would serve as a guide for the development of one's career path. Second, the mentor's ability to provide emotional and psychosocial support therefore creates a confidant, and/or one that will listen to and aide in the adjustment in a range of conditions. Third, the mentor's ability to be an example to the protégé and create an experience which is role modeling is included. Thus, modeling preferred behavior in various settings and contexts. Through addressing these three components, the mentor–protégé relationship is said to provide mutual benefits to the individuals involved (see Jacobi, 1991, Kram and Isabella, 1985 and Levinson et al., 1978). Research suggests that the foundation of a functional mentor–protégé relationship is grounded in four essential areas: (1) establishing a sense of basic trust (Simon et al., 2004); (2) the realization of the dream, or vision (Levinson et al., 1978); (3) professional skills and confidence (Johnson, 2002); and (4) networking (Ragins & Scandura, 1994). Each of these components could prove essential for the Black female athlete and her social balance.
نتیجه گیری انگلیسی
Since 1906, the NCAA has been a significant component in collegiate sport history. Today's college athletics are viewed almost mystically in the glamour and sense of importance reflected in individual fan intensity and Monday morning focused discussion. Arguably, the American appetite for intercollegiate athletics is second to none. Presently, college and university athletic teams are often revered beyond the traditional populations associated with collegiate institutions. As a result, athletics in the United States is an industry. In a 1981 text, Falla described the need for a representative “voice” in college sport evolving from the increasingly out-of-control state of amateur collegiate athletics. By creating the term “student-athlete” the NCAA positioned itself as the guardian of the collegiate athlete. Within this current context, this study examined perceptions via the lens of Black women, and their views of mentorship as NCAA governed student-athletes. As NCAA governed student-athletes, the Black women within this study fall under the 1906 Executive order naming the NCAA as the guardian of the collegiate athlete (Falla, 1981). Of course, one can argue the similarities between the 1906 and 2009 student-athletes vastly differ. Institutional diversity is gaining momentum across the country as Colleges and Universities push inclusion via programs, recruitment, retention and policy. NCAA policy development (e.g., mentorship) that integrates student-athlete perceptions could help prevent isolation while supporting a guardian like relationship initially intended in the NCAA founding documents. Many NCAA member institutions have created administrative offices specific to tolerance and support of diverse student populations. These services or programs can potentially serve as a blueprint or model that can assist in the holistic development of the Black female student-athlete. Therefore, as the introductory quotation by Bethune lament, “invest in the human soul”, for student-athlete diversity and student-athlete perceptions are essential to the present and future of the NCAA. Focused evaluation of student-athlete perceptions by the NCAA, provide valuable insight regarding student-athlete understanding and identifying best practice avenues for the empowerment of the voiceless. Mentoring has historically lacked a clear conceptual definition. In a thorough review of the mentoring literature, Merriam (1983) declared a precise definition of mentoring (at least one that all could agree upon) was not to be found. Several studies have indicated mentoring occurs when there is a trusting relationship between the mentor and the student-athlete, when there is an interest on the part of the mentor in the personal development of the student-athlete, when the mentor purposefully allocates his/her time to fulfill the needs of the student-athlete, and when an imitation of behavior takes place. Research on mentoring in sport is scarce. Perna et al. (1996) empirically investigated the prevalence of mentoring relationships among collegiate male athletes and non-athletes, and examined the effects of mentoring on their psychosocial development. However, Perna et al.’s (1996) study, like most on sport mentorship, is male focused. Increased research on female student-athletes may give details of more intimate information concerning the significant role mentors represent in the evolution of the Black female student-athlete. This study suggests mentoring is a valuable resource for collegiate sport. However, diverse road blocks exist that can potentially derail student-athletes lacking mentorship. As the guardian of student-athletes’, an NCAA lead charge that promotes formalized mentorship programs specifically for student-athletes, would be immense. Structured mentorship programs can only improve and generate positive impact on the NCAA governed student-athlete down the road.