تاثیر مشاوره نظارتی بر یادگیری شخصی و حرفه ای نتایج: اثر تعدیل دوگانه خود کارآمدی
|کد مقاله||سال انتشار||مقاله انگلیسی||ترجمه فارسی||تعداد کلمات|
|8439||2011||10 صفحه PDF||سفارش دهید||5930 کلمه|
Publisher : Elsevier - Science Direct (الزویر - ساینس دایرکت)
Journal : Journal of Vocational Behavior, Volume 78, Issue 2, April 2011, Pages 264–273
Using survey data from 226 employees and their supervisors in four manufacturing companies in China, we found that employee self-efficacy has a dual moderating effect on the impact of supervisory mentoring on subordinate career outcomes. Path analytic tests of mediated moderation suggested that self-efficacy moderates the mediated effects of supervisory mentoring on job performance and career satisfaction through personal learning such that the mediated effect on job performance is stronger when employees have higher self-efficacy, but the mediated effect on career satisfaction is stronger when they have lower self-efficacy.
Supervisory mentoring has been recognized as a key developmental resource in organizational settings (Noe, Greenberger & Wang, 2002). Supervisors use their greater knowledge, experience and status to help develop their subordinates (Bass, 1990). Specifically, supervisory mentoring serves primarily three functions: a career function, a psychosocial function, and role modeling (Scandura & Ragins, 1993). These functions provide help for subordinates in sponsorship, coaching, protection, exposure-and-visibility, and challenging work assignments. Empirical studies suggest that the amount of supervisory mentoring provided predicts subordinate-reported career outcomes, such as career satisfaction, career commitment, and low turnover intentions (e.g. Koberg et al., 1998 and Noe, 1988), and supervisor-rated career outcomes, such as promotion, compensation or salary increase (Dreher & Ash, 1990), and job performance. In this study, we focus the career outcomes on subordinate job performance and career satisfaction. While the question of whether supervisory mentoring leads to positive outcomes is the primary focus in the mentoring literature, more research is called for to examine the intermediate process and boundary conditions through which supervisory mentoring affects subordinate work outcomes. To date, paucity of research has attempted to explore the mechanisms and to uncover the effectiveness of supervisory mentoring. The mentoring literature would benefit from a clearer delineation of factors that mediate or moderate the effect of supervisory mentoring on subordinate career outcomes. We suggest that personal learning and self-efficacy are particularly salient to mentoring relationship. One important function of supervisory mentoring is to help subordinates to learn about organizational life and prepare them for advancement opportunities. Desire to learn plays a key role in the process of mentoring (Kagan, 1994). However, not much research has explicitly examined the mediating role of personal learning in the links between supervisory mentoring and subordinate career outcomes. More studies are needed to explore the effect of subordinate characteristics in the process of supervisory mentoring. Knowledge of how subordinate characteristics affect the impact of supervisory mentoring improves our understanding of the development of supervisory–subordinate relationships (Aryee et al., 1999 and Turban & Dougherty, 1994). Self-efficacy provides explicit guidelines on how to develop and enhance the quality of human functioning such as human motivation and attainments (Bandura, 1995). In spite of the critical role in affecting individual's ability and willingness to exercise control (Litt, 1988), paucity of research has explored how subordinate self-efficacy affects their experiences in the receipt of supervisory mentoring. Taken together, this study aims to integrate the intermediate role of subordinate personal learning and potential boundary effect of self-efficacy in the relationship between supervisory mentoring and subordinate career outcomes. Consistent with the current mentoring literature, supervisory mentoring will have a direct positive effect on protégés' job performance and career success (Allen et al., 2004 and Underhill, 2006). Moreover, mentoring process can be viewed as a mutual learning exchange relationship. This paper attempts to extend the current mentoring literature by incorporating research from the learning and development approach (Maurer, 2002). Personal learning and self-efficacy have been identified as important traits related to an individual's learning and development. Using a learning and developmental perspective, we developed and tested an integrated framework and posited that self-efficacy moderates the mediated effects of supervisory mentoring on outcomes (job performance and career satisfaction) through personal learning. The framework can be schematically represented in Fig. 1.
نتیجه گیری انگلیسی
Previous literature on mentoring has found the relationships between mentoring and career or work-related outcomes such as job performance and career satisfaction. But research has rarely considered the mechanism through which mentoring impacts these outcomes. To fill this gap, we draw on personal learning perspective, and examined the process through which supervisory mentoring influenced job performance and career satisfaction. The results of the study support the following hypotheses. Self-efficacy moderates the mediated effects of supervisory mentoring on job performance and career satisfaction through personal learning such that the mediated effects on job performance are stronger when subordinates have higher self-efficacy, but the mediated effect on career satisfaction are stronger when subordinates have lower self-efficacy. The findings have several important theoretical implications. First, the research found that supervisory mentoring influences both subordinate-reported career satisfaction and subordinate job performance rated by their supervisors. This can be accounted for by the fact that mentoring behaviors such as sponsorship, coaching and protection are related to enhancement of task-related aspects of work that facilitate objective career success. Behaviors associated with psychosocial mentoring, such as role modeling, acceptance, and confirmation, counseling, and friendship, were highly related to satisfaction with the supervisory mentoring. The informational and instrumental social support provided by supervisory mentoring helps individuals feel more confident in their career decisions and enhances their professional ability, which in turn lead to feelings of greater career satisfaction. Second, the study indicates that personal learning explains the specific processes by which supervisory mentoring influences career outcomes. It suggests that organizations should design the mentoring in a way that facilitates personal learning. Supervisory mentoring should consider how assignments and projects can be organized to maximize the subordinate personal learning. Supervisors need to look for opportunities to be role models that are important for their subordinate skill development. Provision of challenging tasks for subordinates can also stimulate learning. Third, the results show that an individual's general self-efficacy is an important moderating factor that may impact the relationships between supervisory mentoring and career outcomes. The finding suggests that in the design of mentoring processes, increasing subordinates' general self-efficacy is a worthwhile strategy for influencing personal learning and career outcomes. Because one's general self-efficacy relates to his confidence in his ability to succeed in a task, people with low self-efficacy are more likely to lessen or completely give up their effort in difficult situations. However, it should be noted that the impact of mentoring on job performance is weaker for employees lower in self-efficacy. Nevertheless, these employees gain more career satisfaction from supervisory mentoring than those higher in self-efficacy. One possible explanation is that employees with lower general self-efficacy are likely to perceive more overall support from their supervisors. The finding suggests that supervisors' ability and competence should be regarded as an important factor in effective mentoring. Supervisors low in ability may give useless or even confusing guidance to subordinates, thus leading to their low career satisfaction. This study offers some practical implications for the socialization and adjustment of employees. One important role of managers is to shape positive employee attitude towards their careers and facilitate their performance. Our work suggests several ways by which managers can strengthen employee career satisfaction and job performance. The first is to provide opportunities for employees to enhance their personal learning. The way that managers can do is to increase career and psychological mentoring to their employees as well as role modeling. The second is to clearly detect employee personality traits to ensure the maximum effects of these mentoring provided to the employees. Generally, managers should pay attention to how they can enhance job performance of high self-efficacy employees, and how they can improve career satisfaction of low self-efficacy employees through mentoring. To this end, it is necessary for managers to possess the skill and credibility to mentor employees with different personality traits. Despite these findings, this study is not without limitations. First, given our cross-sectional research design, it is impossible to assert that supervisory mentoring caused subordinate career success because other variables such as earlier performance levels of that subordinate could account for our results. Future research should incorporate longitudinal or experimental design to clearly establish the linkages among the variables and understand how they change over time (Kearney, Gebert and Voelpel, 2009). Second, except job performance, all other measures are self-reported by subordinates themselves, common method bias in the information obtained may be a concern. However, common method bias has been considered to be less of an issue in the moderated regression (Pierce, Gardner, Dunham & Cummings, 1993). Given that we tested a mediated moderation model, method bias could not have significantly affected our findings. Third, the results of the study reflect data obtained from mentoring relationships and may not generalize to other types of non-supervisory mentoring programs. Future research needs to explore potential non-supervisory mentoring relationships on employee career outcomes. In addition to personal learning and self-efficacy, future studies should also explore other subordinate characteristics in the mentoring relationships. It might be interesting to examine the quality of mentoring. Supervisory mentoring and employee self-efficacy have an important role in promoting employee success. The present study extends our understanding of the mechanism through which supervisory mentoring affects employee career satisfaction and job performance. Our study is interesting and significant because we find employee self-efficacy plays a dual role in moderating the mediated effect of supervisory mentoring on employee work outcomes. Theoretically, the finding contributes to the mentoring and self-efficacy literature by incorporating the mechanism through which mentoring impacts its outcomes, and practically, managers may learn how to develop an effective mentoring relationship.