سوابق و عواقب پذیرش فن آوری CRM در نیروی فروش
|کد مقاله||سال انتشار||تعداد صفحات مقاله انگلیسی||ترجمه فارسی|
|863||2005||14 صفحه PDF||سفارش دهید|
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Publisher : Elsevier - Science Direct (الزویر - ساینس دایرکت)
Journal : Industrial Marketing Management, Volume 34, Issue 4, May 2005, Pages 355–368
Two conceptual approaches [Davis, F. D. (1989). Perceived usefulness, perceived ease of use, and user acceptance of information technology. MIS Quarterly, 13 (3), 319–340; DeLone, W. H., & McLean, E. R. (1992). Information systems success: The quest for the dependent variable. Information Systems Research, 3 (1), 60–95] are unified into a conceptual model that offers a comprehensive explanation of CRM acceptance antecedents and consequences in a sales force setting. Based upon responses from 240 salespersons that utilize a CRM system, the model is tested and explanations are offered for the system's acceptance. Specifically, the most prevailing influence on CRM acceptance comes from CRM perceived usefulness, followed by the setting of accurate expectations regarding system usage, the salesperson innovativeness towards new technological tools, the CRM perceived ease-of-use, and the supervisor encouragement and support. Surprisingly, the model does not adequately explicate salesperson performance. Sales managers are presented with a discussion and implications of the findings.
Undoubtedly, the last 10 years have been characterized by an unprecedented shift in the sales function of the business-to-business organization (Ingram, LaForge, & Leigh, 2002), largely due to the introduction of information systems [IS] into the industrial sales organization (Honeycutt, 2002 and Marshall et al., 1999). These systems have been positioned in the sales force literature as a powerful tool for increasing sales productivity (Hise & Reid, 1994). Thus, it is not surprising that some researchers have underlined the importance of conducting research into the Sales Force Automation (SFA) domain (e.g., Marshall, Michaels, Stone, & Jawahar, 2001). Yet, research on SFA/CRM2 applications is very limited (Ingram et al., 2002), in spite of the critical role of CRM systems on building and sustaining effective customer relationships and the fact that while most CRM implementations constitute a great investment for the sales organization, they fail to be accepted by the sales force (Speier & Venkatesh, 2002). Research efforts in the area of industrial SFA systems, are focusing either on the antecedents of SFA adoption and acceptance (e.g., Morgan & Inks, 2001) or on the consequences of the SFA implementation (e.g., Keillor, Bashaw, & Pettijohn, 1997). By reviewing the sales/marketing literature it becomes apparent that no published study has simultaneously examined the antecedents and the consequences of the SFA/CRM technology acceptance for the industrial salespersons. Moreover, most of the published studies are largely descriptive in nature and have concentrated on technology adoption at the organization level (e.g., Pullig et al., 2002 and Rivers & Dart, 1999), thus paying less attention to the factors leading individuals to adopt new technological tools. Two notable exceptions are the recent works of Jones, Sundaram, and Chin (2002) and Speier and Venkatesh (2002). Finally, a closer examination of both the information systems and the sales management literature reveals that there is a dearth of knowledge regarding the impact of information technology on individual performance. Therefore, the purpose of this paper is twofold: firstly, to examine the factors that lead to the effective acceptance of CRM technology and, secondly and simultaneously, to investigate the impact of its implementation on the individual sales representative performance. The structure of the paper is organized as follows: first, we review the relevant literature, in order to develop the conceptual framework and the research hypotheses of our study. Next, we present the methodology and the results of the empirical study. Finally, the study findings are discussed both from a theoretical and a managerial standpoint, and several suggestions for future research in this important area, are presented.
نتیجه گیری انگلیسی
The purpose of this article is [a] to enhance our understanding of the antecedents of CRM acceptance and its impact on salesperson performance, and thus [b] offer some useful and practical guidelines for the sales organizations wishing to successfully implement CRM systems and realize performance gains. 4.1. CRM technology acceptance Overall, the study variables explain 61% of the CRM acceptance variance, which is in accordance with the results of previous studies [e.g., Davis et al., 1989). Among the antecedent variables of acceptance, the most prevailing effect comes from salesperson's beliefs towards the system (Jones et al., 2002). That is, salespeople that perceive a CRM system to be easy-to-use and useful in conducting their activities are more likely to adopt it and use it in their day-to-day activities. This finding has major implications for sales management, as it suggests that managers should strive to determine the informational needs of their salespeople and develop positive user beliefs about the system. This can be accomplished in several ways. First, and most importantly, sales organizations must focus on the development of accurate expectations regarding system usage and benefits, so that CRM users have an unambiguous picture of what management expects from system implementation. Second, salespeople should take part in the system design and implementation phase, so as to commit themselves and develop realistic expectations about the system. Finally, sales supervisors have a major role to accomplish in the system acceptance process, by supporting and encouraging salespeople to use the system. Moreover, the study findings clearly demonstrate that more innovative salespeople, who are early adopters of new technological innovations, are more likely to adopt a CRM system. Apparently, managers should pay attention to the innovative characteristics of salespeople in the recruitment and hiring process. Moreover, management must pay attention to the demographic composition of the sales force [e.g., age and education], as younger and more educated salespersons are expected to be more familiar with new technological tools. Surprisingly and in sharp contrast with previous findings (e.g., Gelderman, 1998 and Igbaria et al., 1989), user satisfaction with the CRM system and CRM training, are not significantly associated with CRM acceptance. It is quite likely that satisfaction with the system and training are necessary but not sufficient conditions for CRM acceptance by industrial salespersons. Apparently, merely training salespersons on CRM use or providing them with a superior CRM system, will not lead to system acceptance, if salespeople do not perceive the system to be useful and easy-to-use. 4.2. CRM technology impact on performance The results clearly demonstrate that a salesperson's beliefs regarding CRM ease-of-use and CRM usefulness have a catalytic influence on sales performance. More analytically, the most important influence on performance comes from PU, followed by PEOU. In particular, the degree to which users believe that the CRM system is useful and easy-to-use leads to performance improvements. Probably, the low complexity of a CRM system [i.e. ease-of-use] saves time from non-selling activities [e.g., administrative tasks] and, subsequently, improves productivity. In addition, a CRM system that is perceived as performance enhancing, and therefore has more functional capabilities, can help the salesperson to improve his/her work outcomes. Moreover, accurate expectations' setting indirectly influences sales performance. Apparently, clarification of the way the system can be used for performing sales tasks and of what the management expects from its use, can boost performance. However, the non-significant linkage between CRM acceptance and salesperson performance was unexpected. Contrary to the findings of past studies in IS research (Igbaria & Tan, 1997), acceptance of a CRM technology does not lead to performance improvements. It seems that merely infusing a CRM system into the sales force is just not enough to boost sales performance. A possible explanation for the absence of association between CRM acceptance and salesperson performance may be attributed to the complex process through which information technology improves performance, and which has been termed as the “information technology–productivity paradox” (Brynjolfsson & Yang, 1996). More analytically, a CRM system can create intangible benefits, such as employee motivation, smoother interaction between departments, and enhancement of the company image (Rivers & Dart, 1999), which are very difficult to measure or capture by the “naive” measures of performance used in most of the studies. Another paradoxical finding, which parallels the insignificant relationship of job satisfaction with performance (Brown & Peterson, 1993), is the absence of association between CRM user satisfaction and salesperson performance. This result, combined with the non-significant effect of acceptance on performance, creates doubts concerning the nomological validity of the DeLone and McLean (1992) model and its applicability in industrial sales contexts. Overall, the insignificant effect of most of the variables on salesperson performance, which is reflected in the relatively low explained variance [R2=8.7%], provides evidence of the need for further theoretical development regarding the consequences of CRM acceptance on sales force performance. Although it is too early to conclude that CRM systems do not have an impact on the performance of business-to-business salespersons, sales organizations must critically examine their current needs in information technology and the process through which technology can be delineated with sales strategy. Finally, sales organizations must recognize the fact that the salesperson is the “internal customer” of any CRM system, whose needs and beliefs must be understood, managed, and eventually satisfied, if performance improvements are to be realized.