آموزش تحصیلات تکمیلی در اقتصاد زیست محیطی
|کد مقاله||سال انتشار||مقاله انگلیسی||ترجمه فارسی||تعداد کلمات|
|8730||2004||7 صفحه PDF||سفارش دهید||3260 کلمه|
Publisher : Elsevier - Science Direct (الزویر - ساینس دایرکت)
Journal : Ecological Economics, Volume 51, Issues 3–4, 1 December 2004, Pages 287–293
Interest in graduate education in ecological economics is increasing. However, no formal plan of study for a PhD in ecological economics has been disseminated. The lack of a formal plan is problematic as the field of ecological economics matures, interest grows and new programs are being developed. This paper attempts to fill a void by creating a program of study addressing the proficiencies a graduate student in ecological economics should have upon completion of his/her PhD based on the US educational system. The plan of study presented in this paper has been developed to make the graduate of an ecological economics program as competitive on the labor market as students awarded traditional economics degrees. The plan I describe is created to meet the requirements necessary for a PhD in ecological economics. Further, fields of specialization are suggested to complement the core of an ecological economics program, to enhance the education process and to give the student with an ecological economics degree a higher level of marketability.
As ecological economists, we should have an interest in the process and development of a curriculum for graduate education within the discipline. Graduate school plays a vital role in economic discourse by certifying economists as professionals, establishing economists' view of argumentation and guiding them to what is important to study and what is not (Colander and Klamer, 1987). What economists do is what they were trained to do in their graduate programs (Hansen, 1991). Therefore, a well formulated course of study is necessary. However, other than anecdotal information, no formal plan of study for a PhD in ecological economics has been disseminated. The lack of a formal plan is problematic as the field of ecological economics matures, interest grows and new programs are being developed. This paper attempts to fill a void by creating a program of study addressing the proficiencies a graduate student in ecological economics should have upon completion of his/her PhD. The plan of study presented here (Fig. 1), based on the U.S. standard of 60 credits beyond a masters degree, is developed to make the graduate of an ecological economics program as competitive on the labor market as students awarded traditional economics degrees. The five proficiencies that a student should be able to demonstrate are: (1) gaining access to existing knowledge, (2) displaying command of existing knowledge, (3) displaying the ability to draw out existing knowledge, (4) using existing knowledge to explore issues and (5) creating new knowledge (Becker et al., 1991). The program of study I describe will meet each of these standards. Further, fields of specialization are suggested to complement the core of an ecological economics program, to enhance the education process and to give the student with an ecological economics degree a higher level of marketability.The curriculum presented in this paper is designed to train graduate students in economics. However, an alternative curriculum that emphasizes the natural sciences slightly more can just as easily be developed. But, in the end, most will agree that economics is the driving factor for ecological degradation. Therefore, a solid foundation in economics for a doctoral degree in ecological economics is necessary. Opinions in graduate economic education are seldom made public, but when they are, the views are most critical (Colander and Klamer, 1987). Let me emphasize that the views presented here are my own personal views and are presented with the hopes of fostering discussion about the basic educational requirements for an advanced degree in ecological economics. The following sections will outline the core of a program in ecological economics, consisting of required courses and comprehensive exams, the fields of study and the underlying objectives.
نتیجه گیری انگلیسی
A formal graduate curriculum for ecological economics is necessary for the successful continuation of the discipline. There is a diversity of approaches within the field in both the American and European schools of thought. While this diversity is a strength, only through the prescription of a defined curriculum can ecological economics have a unified front. To date, there is an obvious deficiency in standardizing graduate education in the field. I have attempted to fill this gaping hole by proposing a plan, following the U.S. academic requirements, to meet the minimal standards that should be required of candidates for a PhD in ecological economics. Again, let me emphasize that the curriculum presented in this paper is in the hopes of generating discussion about the basic educational requirements for a degree in ecological economics. A new approach to economics requires an updated, interdisciplinary, curriculum. Mainstream economics consists of theory and ideas with which economists at the top graduate programs are comfortable. The familiarity with the requirements for a traditional economics degree has given the established graduate program an aspect of exclusivity. Nevertheless, ecological economics has become more accepted as a discipline within the field of economics, with a growing popularity evidenced by the number of colleges and universities offering graduate and certificate programs. Ecological economics is a discipline with increasing national and international interest. However, a detailed curriculum has never been developed, causing academic inequities and discontinuity. This is a major void in the academic system for graduate study. Until this void is filled, ecological economics will flounder in its ability to make a serious impact on graduate study and in the marketplace.