توسعه اقتصاد محیط زیست در استرالیا و نیوزیلند
|کد مقاله||سال انتشار||مقاله انگلیسی||ترجمه فارسی||تعداد کلمات|
|8739||2006||20 صفحه PDF||سفارش دهید||12069 کلمه|
Publisher : Elsevier - Science Direct (الزویر - ساینس دایرکت)
Journal : Ecological Economics, Volume 56, Issue 3, 15 March 2006, Pages 312–331
This paper reviews the development of ecological economics in Australia and New Zealand since its beginnings in the late 1970s. A historical account is presented that focuses particularly on the activities of the Australia New Zealand Society for Ecological Economics and key ecological economics research activities. Achievements of ecological economics in Australia and New Zealand are assessed, using a range of quantitative and qualitative data. The main areas of expertise developed by Australian and New Zealand ecological economists were found to be: theoretical foundations and visions for ecological economics; biodiversity and resilience; input–output analysis; heterodox valuation approaches; analysis of economy–environment interactions; sustainability indicators; sustainable agriculture, fisheries and oceans; and energy/thermodynamics. Both countries are ranked at the top (or near the top) of the world rankings in terms of per capita ISEE membership and publication rates in Ecological Economics. A defining feature of ecological economics in Australia and New Zealand has also been its practical and problem-solving focus and the level of end-user engagement. The paper concludes by discussing the challenges that face the future development of ecological economics in Australia and New Zealand.
The history of ecological economics thinking can be traced back to the pre-classical economists most notably the French physiocrats in the 18th century, as well as the British classical economists of Malthus, Ricardo and Mill. As is well known, many ecological economics ideas, such as the ‘steady state’ and ‘carrying capacity’, indeed had their roots amongst the theorising of the classical economists. Martinez-Alier (1987) also links the development of contemporary ecological economics to other theorists such as Geddes, Clausius and Soddy that came from a variety of disciplinary backgrounds ranging from town planning to thermodynamics. Despite this well-established rationale for an ‘ecological’ approach to economics, this approach lay very much dormant until the late 1960s–early 1970s when economists such as Boulding (1966), Georgescu-Roegen (1971) and Daly (1973) insisted on an approach that understood the ecological and thermodynamic limits to economic activity. It was not however until 1989 that the International Society for Ecological Economics (ISEE) was established, and the first international conference of the Society took place in Washington DC, in May 1990 (Costanza, 2003). The history of the development of Australian and New Zealand ecological economics can be understood within this context. Although early theoretical and empirical research took place in Australia and New Zealand throughout the 1980s, the Australia New Zealand Society for Ecological Economics (ANZSEE) was not formed until 1995. The purpose of this article is to trace and explain the development of ecological economics in Australia and New Zealand over its 25-year history. The main events, achievements and contributions of Australasian1 ecological economics are documented and discussed, drawing on data and information from historical records, interviews, research publications and citation analyses. Although every effort has been made to present a ‘fair and balanced’ view of this history, this is ultimately a personal account of these historical events that may not necessarily directly correspond to the perspective of others.