دانلود مقاله ISI انگلیسی شماره 9025
عنوان فارسی مقاله

قفل گذاری چند گرانولیته سبک برای مدیریت معامله در سیستم های پایگاه داده XML

کد مقاله سال انتشار مقاله انگلیسی ترجمه فارسی تعداد کلمات
9025 2005 10 صفحه PDF سفارش دهید محاسبه نشده
خرید مقاله
پس از پرداخت، فوراً می توانید مقاله را دانلود فرمایید.
عنوان انگلیسی
Lightweight multigranularity locking for transaction management in XML database systems
منبع

Publisher : Elsevier - Science Direct (الزویر - ساینس دایرکت)

Journal : Journal of Systems and Software, Volume 78, Issue 1, October 2005, Pages 37–46

کلمات کلیدی
کنترل همزمانی - داده های نیمه ساختار یافته - پایگاه داده - زبان نشانه گذاری توسعه پذیر
پیش نمایش مقاله
پیش نمایش مقاله قفل گذاری چند گرانولیته سبک برای مدیریت معامله در سیستم های پایگاه داده XML

چکیده انگلیسی

As eXtensible Markup Language (XML) provides a capability for describing data structures, and can accommodate many kinds of semistructured data. The semistructured data format is flexible for changing data structures through insertion and deletion of data elements in mission-critical applications. In the case of concurrently changing such a data format, this flexibility could be endangered by a phantom problem which might lead to inconsistent information flow. For the purpose of developing a concurrency control scheme without the phantom phenomenon, we propose a lightweight multigranularity locking (LWMGL) scheme that is a hybrid mechanism of Tree-based Locking and Multigranularity Locking. The goal of this scheme is to realize locking at the level of precise elements in an XML database while preventing the phantom problems. Since these precise locks could considerably reduce the number of pseudo-conflicts that are regarded as unnecessary locks, they provide high concurrency compared with other concurrency control schemes. In order to realize the LWMGL scheme we also devised a new data model of XML indexed element tables (XIETs) for transferring diverse XML documents. This data model does not only can preserve the XML tree structure in application levels, but also enables execution of the structural change operations as well as the data access operations in parallel.

مقدمه انگلیسی

As eXtensible Markup Language (XML) provides a capability for describing data structures, and can accommodate many kinds of semistructured data ( Bourret, 2004, McHugh et al., 1997 and Suciu, 2002). The semistructured data format is characteristic of providing flexibility for its structural change through insertion and deletion of data elements in mission-critical applications such as electronic commerce and bioinformatics (Achard et al., 2001). In the case of concurrently changing such a data format, this flexibility could be endangered by a phantom problem which might lead to inconsistent information flow. For example, assume that a customer C1 searches books in an XML book catalog document such as illustrated in Fig. 1(a). At the moment, assume that another customer C2 is going to insert a new element, Discount, into the location given by an XML path expression, /Books/Book, on a Book XML tree such as in Fig. 1(b) while C1 can only see the book title element, Title, and the book price element, Price. If C1 tries to search collections of elements contained in /Books/Book once more, it would find that the results that are different from those before searching for the phantom element, Discount. The phantom phenomenon has its origin in inserting Discount before C1 finishes its book search. If a transaction scheduler could control the schedules in order to insert the element after finishing the search, and vice versa, this phantom problem would not arise. There have been various attempts to resolve phantom problems in dynamic databases (Chaudhri and Hadzilocos, 1995) that are databases that contain a dynamic collection of dependent data elements, which can insert and delete at an application level. Most of these attempts have concentrated on hierarchical locking schemes i.e., Tree-based Locking (TL) (Bernstein et al., 1987) and Multigranularity Locking (MGL) ( Bernstein et al., 1987 and Helmer et al., 2004). In order to prevent phantom problems, the TL scheme first holds a lock on the parent node before acquiring locks on the child node. A distinctive feature of TL is that a transaction releases a lock on a parent node immediately upon obtaining locks on all the children nodes. This handshake between locking children and unlocking their parent is known as lock coupling (Bernstein et al., 1987). Concurrency control schemes using such a lock coupling can achieve high concurrency because unnecessary locks are released earlier. Due to low locking cost and a useful index structure such as B-Tree (Gray and Reuter, 1993), TL has been universally applicable in traditional relational database management systems. However, TL does not be applicable for XML data management due to the absence of an efficient index structure for an XML document model and the phantom problems. The MGL scheme has been the subject of considerable attention with regard to transaction schedules for data structures with containment relationships among granules. In order to manage subtree-level locks on a hierarchical data structure, this scheme involves a shared lock, an exclusive lock, and intention locks which are composed of intention shared locks and intention exclusive locks. Since these intention locks can give a previous notice to the other transactions, they can reduce the cost of searching entire elements on specified subtree for locking. Even though the MGL effectively preserves serializability from phantom problems, it may fail to achieve a high concurrency due to pseudo-conflicts (Grabs et al., 2002) in the case of XML databases. Such conflicts arise from inserting new elements into, or deleting child elements from, intention lock elements while other transactions perform on an XML database. With a view to achieving an appropriate concurrency control scheme for typical XML applications, there have been several attempts to merge the hierarchical locking schemes with Predicated Locking (PL) ( Choi and Kanai, 2003 and Dekeyser and Hidders, 2004) and to combine these schemes with some properties such as multiple versions and operation semantics. Most of these attempts have concentrated on providing high concurrency as well as guaranteeing serializability, which could be endangered by phantoms. Unfortunately, the schemes do not focus sufficient attention on concurrency of transactions containing multiple operations which are composed of structural change operations as well as data access operations. For the purpose of developing a concurrency control scheme without phantom phenomenon, we propose a lightweight multigranularity locking (LWMGL) scheme that is a hybrid mechanism of TL and MGL. The basic goal of this scheme is to realize locking at the unit of precise granule in the XML database while resolving the phantom problem. Since these precise locks could considerably reduce the number of pseudo-conflicts that are regarded as unnecessary locks, this approach provides high concurrency compared with other concurrency control schemes. In order to realize the LWMGL scheme we also devise a new data model of XML indexed element tables (XIETs) for transferring diverse XML document schemata to a relational database schema. This data model does not only preserve the XML tree structure at application levels, but enables execution of structural change operations as well as the data access operations in parallel.

نتیجه گیری انگلیسی

In this paper, we proposed a new locking scheme called LWMGL for consistency maintenance in XML database systems. A novel feature of our scheme is to realize locking at the level of precise elements by using lightweight locks of granule size while resolving the phantom problems. Since these precise locks could considerably reduce the numbers of pseudo-conflicts that are regarded as unnecessary locks, it could achieve high concurrency compared with other concurrency control schemes based on the conventional MGL. For the purpose of locking precise granules, we introduced XIETs, which are a new XML data management model. This model handles a mapping methodology for transferring diverse XML document schemata to a relational database schema. This data model does not only preserve the XML tree structure at application levels, but also enables execution of structural change operations as well as data access operations in parallel. As this paper lacks comparison with other approaches in terms of some examples, the scheme could be strengthened by additional evidence demonstrating its strengths over the conventional approaches. The implementation of the proposed scheme and the quantitative analysis of execution times according to a real-time variance of computerized resources needed for the proposed locking will be included in future works. Finally, we would like to extend our scheme to allow further theoretical investigation by using some properties such as multiple versions and operation semantics.

خرید مقاله
پس از پرداخت، فوراً می توانید مقاله را دانلود فرمایید.