اثرات ارتباطات به واسطه نماد مبتنی بر حرکت بر روی طوفان مغزی و اقدامات مذاکره در میان کاربران جوان
|کد مقاله||سال انتشار||مقاله انگلیسی||ترجمه فارسی||تعداد کلمات|
|9209||2013||8 صفحه PDF||سفارش دهید||5680 کلمه|
Publisher : Elsevier - Science Direct (الزویر - ساینس دایرکت)
Journal : Computers in Human Behavior, Volume 29, Issue 3, May 2013, Pages 1204–1211
his paper reports on a study which investigated the effects of gesture-based avatar-mediated communication on younger users (12–13 years old), in comparison to video-mediated communication. Specifically, we looked at how these technologies were used by school pupils to brainstorm and negotiate ideas in a bullying context. 64 school pupils were divided into two conditions (Skype and AvatarKinect) and were instructed to carry out two tasks (a brainstorming and a negotiation task). Objective task performance, perceived satisfaction and perceived partner’s characteristics were compared. We found no difference in term of perceived satisfaction. AvatarKinect users reported more positive changes in perceptions toward their partner. The results on task performance were ambivalent; Skype users seemed to generate more ideas, whilst AvatarKinect produced better quality ideas. In summary, gesture-based avatar technology appears to be a useful modality to help resolve bullying in schools.
The potential of technology to connect people and mediate people’s interaction via computer interface is an ongoing concern of computer-mediated communication (CMC) studies. Traditionally, CMC facilitates interaction mainly through the medium of text and audio (Olaniran, 2002). With the advances in technology, video-based and 3D virtual environments are getting increasingly common (McIntyre & Feiner, 1996). 3D virtual environments are particularly interesting as social interactions is usually mediated by an avatar, a computer generated visual representation of the user. Both video and avatar-based CMC attempts to overcome a fundamental issue of traditional text or audio-based CMC – the lack of social cues (Garrison et al., 2000, Lea and Spears, 1992 and Vrasidas and McIsaac, 2000). Recently, we have witnessed the emergence of new CMC technologies incorporating natural user interaction approaches such as gesture-based interfaces and facial recognition into avatar technology. While the benefits and drawbacks of text and voice-mediated communication are fairly well explored (see Bordia, 1997), the communication potential of newer interaction modalities such as real time video, avatar-augmented and gesture-based interfaces are less well understood due to their fairly recent: (a) emergence (avatar and gesture interfaces), and (b) widespread adoption (real time video). Therefore, the aim of the study is to find out how two different technological modalities, i.e. video-based and gesture-based avatar-mediated communication can facilitate brainstorming and negotiation tasks in the context of bullying in school. The specific objectives of the study are: (a) to study gesture-based avatar-mediated communication in comparison to video-mediated communication; (b) to provide some indications on how effective gesture-based avatar technologies are in the context of bullying among young people; (c) to obtain some indications of design factors which are important for both types of communication.
نتیجه گیری انگلیسی
The study showed the potential of employing gesture-based avatar technologies in the school context, in the context of brainstorming and negotiation among students. It has been generally believed that avatar-mediated communication is somewhat poorer in term of the emotional and gesture richness, compared to video-mediated communication. Newer technologies such as AvatarKinect implemented avatars that respond to emotional and gesture cues, thus making the social interaction potentially more satisfying. In addition, as people (especially younger people) are growing up with avatar-augmented and gesture-based CMC technology, they are becoming more comfortable with this form of communication. Our study provided an indication of how this technology could be useful in mediating conflict relating to bullying situations in the school context. However, larger scale studies need to be carried out to examine more closely how other attributes such as gender and socio-economic backgrounds might influence the outcomes. Although compared to non-gesture-based avatar systems AvatarKinect has relatively high behavioural realism, the gesture recognition technology is still generally crude and does not detect certain features, for instance fingers. It does not detect facial expression accurately either. Therefore, future studies could focus on avatars with higher degrees of behavioural realism. Visual realism is another area that is worth investigating. As aforementioned, several studies have focused on the photo-realism of static avatar (still images). Future research could focus on visual realism in a gesture-based setting.