دانلود مقاله ISI انگلیسی شماره 934
عنوان فارسی مقاله

ویژگی های سازمانی و فرایند اتخاذ مدیریت ارتباط با مشتری (CRM)

کد مقاله سال انتشار مقاله انگلیسی ترجمه فارسی تعداد کلمات
934 2008 10 صفحه PDF سفارش دهید 6700 کلمه
خرید مقاله
پس از پرداخت، فوراً می توانید مقاله را دانلود فرمایید.
عنوان انگلیسی
Organizational characteristics and the CRM adoption process
منبع

Publisher : Elsevier - Science Direct (الزویر - ساینس دایرکت)

Journal : Journal of Business Research, Volume 61, Issue 1, January 2008, Pages 65–74

کلمات کلیدی
مدیریت ارتباط با مشتری - اتخاذ فرآیند - ویژگی های سازمانی
پیش نمایش مقاله
پیش نمایش مقاله ویژگی های سازمانی و فرایند اتخاذ مدیریت ارتباط با مشتری (CRM)

چکیده انگلیسی

The purpose of this study is to identify the status of Customer Relationship Management (CRM) adoption and explore the influence of organizational characteristics on the CRM adoption process in the Korean fashion industry. Using Rogers' [Rogers EM. Diffusion of innovation. New York: Free Press; 1995] innovation decision process model as the conceptual basis, this study surveyed 94 Korean fashion companies to investigate the persuasion, decision, and implementation stages of CRM adoption. Organizational variables included firm characteristics (size, strategy, maturity of information system), product characteristics (category, fashion position, seasonality), and CEO characteristics (age, education). The most frequently used CRM technology is the development of a customer database, whereas the mostly frequently mentioned benefits of CRM are encouraging repurchase. Moreover, respondents' perceptions of CRM benefits affect CRM adoption, influencing the use of various CRM technologies. Organizational strategy, maturity of information system, and product category all significantly influence the adoption process. Empirical findings provide further support for the innovation decision process model developed by Rogers [Rogers EM. Diffusion of innovation. New York: Free Press; 1995] and the CRM adoption model can be used when fashion companies do strategic planning and evaluate the possibility of adopting CRM strategies.

مقدمه انگلیسی

Recently, consumers' needs and purchase patterns have changed dramatically. To meet various needs, companies tend to adopt differentiated and customer-oriented marketing strategies to gain competitive advantage. Customer Relationship Management (CRM) is one specific example, adopted to create and manage relationships with customers more effectively through the detailed and accurate analysis of consumer data using various information technologies (Anderson Consulting, 1998, Buttle, 1996, Gefen and Ridings, 2002 and Ngai, 2005). Improved relationships with consumers can lead to greater customer loyalty, retention, and profitability. Although the importance of CRM as a successful strategic approach since the 1990s has been widely recognized, there is no consistent definition of it (Ling and Yen, 2001 and Xu et al., 2002). According to Swift (2001), CRM is “an enterprise approach to understanding and influencing customer behavior through meaningful communications in order to improve customer acquisition, customer retention, customer loyalty, and customer profitability.” Kincaid (2003) defines CRM as “the strategic use of information, processes, technology, and people to manage the customer's relationship with [the] company across the whole customer life cycle.” According to Ko et al. (2004), CRM is also defined as the integrated customer management strategy of a firm to efficiently manage customers by providing customized goods and services and maximizing customers' lifetime values. The goal of CRM is to achieve a competitive advantage in customer management and ultimately increase profit levels (Gartner Group, 2005 and Gartner Group, 2006). In the Korean fashion industry, companies are increasing their CRM investment in managing existing customers to survive in the economic downturn rather than attracting new customers by expanding the business (Fashion CRM Fair, 2006). Generally, attracting new customers costs five times as much as keeping or managing existing ones, which means that existing customers contribute five times more sales than new customers do (Seo, 2001). However, even though the interest and investment in CRM in the Korean fashion industry have been constantly growing, few empirical research studies and proven practices about the CRM adoption process and related factors with a proposed framework have been undertaken in the industry (Fashion CRM Fair, 2006). Thus, this study will provide essential information for developing appropriate business strategies for the Korean fashion industry by identifying the main factors of the CRM adoption process. The specific purposes of the study are to (1) identify the CRM adoption status of the Korean fashion industry by examining firms' perceptions of CRM benefits, adoption of a CRM strategy, and implementation levels of CRM technologies, and (2) examine the main factors influencing CRM adoption, such as firm characteristics (size, strategy, maturity of information system), product characteristics (category, fashion position, seasonality), and CEO characteristics (age, education). This study makes several contributions. First, the CRM adoption model can be used when fashion companies do strategic planning and evaluate the possibility of adopting CRM strategies. Informed decisions are critical for companies to use their resources more efficiently and provide improved service to the final consumer. Second, our empirical findings provide further support for the innovation decision process model developed by Rogers (1995). Finally, our major premise is that the process by which firms adopt CRM innovation is affected by their overall organizational characteristics.

نتیجه گیری انگلیسی

Recently, consumers' needs and purchase patterns have changed dramatically. To meet various needs, companies tend to adopt differentiated and customer-oriented marketing strategies to gain competitive advantage. Customer Relationship Management (CRM) is one specific example, adopted to create and manage relationships with customers more effectively through the detailed and accurate analysis of consumer data using various information technologies (Anderson Consulting, 1998, Buttle, 1996, Gefen and Ridings, 2002 and Ngai, 2005). Improved relationships with consumers can lead to greater customer loyalty, retention, and profitability. Although the importance of CRM as a successful strategic approach since the 1990s has been widely recognized, there is no consistent definition of it (Ling and Yen, 2001 and Xu et al., 2002). According to Swift (2001), CRM is “an enterprise approach to understanding and influencing customer behavior through meaningful communications in order to improve customer acquisition, customer retention, customer loyalty, and customer profitability.” Kincaid (2003) defines CRM as “the strategic use of information, processes, technology, and people to manage the customer's relationship with [the] company across the whole customer life cycle.” According to Ko et al. (2004), CRM is also defined as the integrated customer management strategy of a firm to efficiently manage customers by providing customized goods and services and maximizing customers' lifetime values. The goal of CRM is to achieve a competitive advantage in customer management and ultimately increase profit levels (Gartner Group, 2005 and Gartner Group, 2006). In the Korean fashion industry, companies are increasing their CRM investment in managing existing customers to survive in the economic downturn rather than attracting new customers by expanding the business (Fashion CRM Fair, 2006). Generally, attracting new customers costs five times as much as keeping or managing existing ones, which means that existing customers contribute five times more sales than new customers do (Seo, 2001). However, even though the interest and investment in CRM in the Korean fashion industry have been constantly growing, few empirical research studies and proven practices about the CRM adoption process and related factors with a proposed framework have been undertaken in the industry (Fashion CRM Fair, 2006). Thus, this study will provide essential information for developing appropriate business strategies for the Korean fashion industry by identifying the main factors of the CRM adoption process. The specific purposes of the study are to (1) identify the CRM adoption status of the Korean fashion industry by examining firms' perceptions of CRM benefits, adoption of a CRM strategy, and implementation levels of CRM technologies, and (2) examine the main factors influencing CRM adoption, such as firm characteristics (size, strategy, maturity of information system), product characteristics (category, fashion position, seasonality), and CEO characteristics (age, education). This study makes several contributions. First, the CRM adoption model can be used when fashion companies do strategic planning and evaluate the possibility of adopting CRM strategies. Informed decisions are critical for companies to use their resources more efficiently and provide improved service to the final consumer. Second, our empirical findings provide further support for the innovation decision process model developed by Rogers (1995). Finally, our major premise is that the process by which firms adopt CRM innovation is affected by their overall organizational characteristics.

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