|کد مقاله||سال انتشار||مقاله انگلیسی||ترجمه فارسی||تعداد کلمات|
|94884||2018||10 صفحه PDF||سفارش دهید||5895 کلمه|
Publisher : Elsevier - Science Direct (الزویر - ساینس دایرکت)
Journal : International Journal of Hydrogen Energy, Volume 43, Issue 1, 4 January 2018, Pages 490-499
This paper presents an energy management and reserve scheduling scheme in order to optimally operate a 17-bus Low Voltage (LV) grid-tied microgrid, powered by photovoltaics, a wind turbine and a Fuel Cell (FC) utilizing on site hydrogen production and storage. Since high Renewable Energy Resources (RES) penetration is assumed, the expected deviations due to their intermittency are accounted for by the reserve provision by the FC system, in order to deviate as little as possible from the scheduled energy demand injected by the upstream grid. All these are incorporated into the operating cost of the microgrid assuming penalization of unscheduled power injections from the grid. The intermittency of RES and load are incorporated in the model by assuming known probability density functions for the forecasting errors. Then, energy and reserve scheduling is performed utilizing the Harmony Search algorithm in order to minimize the expected operating costs of the examined system by optimal reserve and energy provision from the stored/generated hydrogen. For that purpose, hourly optimizations are performed for a given year to assess the value on-site hydrogen generation and FC technologies add to microgrid operation and Distributed Generation (DG) in general. The purpose is to prove the use of hydrogen storage systems in effective uncertainty balancing. The hydrogen storage system appears to effectively counter the intermittency of renewables in moderate penetration, reducing the uncertainty costs. In higher renewable penetrations, due to uncertainty being already accounted for by the storage, the benefits of the RES penetration are even greater.