دانلود مقاله ISI انگلیسی شماره 9634
عنوان فارسی مقاله

گرایش کارآفرینی، جهت گیری یادگیری و نوآوری در شرکت های کوچک و متوسط

کد مقاله سال انتشار مقاله انگلیسی ترجمه فارسی تعداد کلمات
9634 2011 8 صفحه PDF سفارش دهید 3140 کلمه
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عنوان انگلیسی
Entrepreneurial orientation, learning orientation, and innovation in small and medium enterprises
منبع

Publisher : Elsevier - Science Direct (الزویر - ساینس دایرکت)

Journal : Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences, Volume 24, 2011, Pages 563–570

کلمات کلیدی
- جهت گیری یادگیری - گرایش کارآفرینی - نوآوری -
پیش نمایش مقاله
پیش نمایش مقاله گرایش کارآفرینی، جهت گیری یادگیری و نوآوری در شرکت های کوچک و متوسط

چکیده انگلیسی

From the resource-based perspective, entrepreneurial orientation and market orientation are two separate but complementary strategic orientations that emphasize the business philosophy and behavior in proactively detecting industrial environment, including market information and competitors strategy, in order to innovate and respond to the customers needs timely. Empirical studies have separately discussed the variables of entrepreneurial orientation and market orientation in relation to firm-level innovation performance. However, there is limited research simultaneously examined the direct effect of entrepreneurial orientation and market orientation on innovation performance, especially individual-level innovation performance. Scholars have suggested that future research may examine strategic human resource practices to explore if organizational factors may enhance or diminish the entrepreneurial orientation on innovation. Both entrepreneurial orientation and market orientation still require organizational learning practices to facilitate higher-order learning and innovation. Although scholars are interested in figuring out if additional moderator variables simultaneously affect market orientation and entrepreneurial orientation on firm performance, limited empirical studies have existed. An organization with high degree of entrepreneurial orientation and market orientation still require learning orientation mechanism to create an environment where mutually beneficial relationships between employees and their organizations to facilitate learning and innovation. Therefore, learning orientation may make an organization innovate effectively. As a result, the overall purpose of this study is to assess the influence learning orientation on relationships between entrepreneurial orientation, market orientation and individual-level job related performance variable, employee innovative behaviors.

مقدمه انگلیسی

With the emergence of globalization, the business environment has become more uncertain and complex. The environment is changing constantly and rapidly as well as the market and customers’ needs (Prajogo & Ahmed, 2006). Organizations are forced to learn new knowledge to develop new products in order to satisfy the new market and customer demographics. Thus organizations pursue innovation in marketing and entrepreneurial activities may attain competitive advantage (Barsh, 2007; Chapman & Hyland, 2004). From the resource-based perspective, entrepreneurial orientation and market orientation are two separate but complementary strategic orientations (Miles & Arnold, 1991). In fact, both market orientation and entrepreneurial orientation emphasize the philosophy and behavior in proactively detecting industrial environment, including market information and competitors strategy in order to innovate and respond to the customers needs timely. The nature of both entrepreneurial orientation and market orientation are highly emphasized on an organization’s willingness to innovate within the organization (Baker & Sinkula, 2009). In other words,these two distinct variables are described as organizational-level efficacy and capability in creating innovation to respond to the external environment and satisfy customer needs.Although entrepreneurial orientation has been defined in many different dimensions, such as autonomy, innovativeness, proactiveness, competitive aggressiveness, and risk-taking, three dimensions,innovativeness, proactiveness, and risk-taking, have been adopted most frequently in defining entrepreneurial orientation (Lumpkin & Dess, 1996). Innovativeness means an organization is willing to pursue new ideas and concept in process, products, or services development. Proactiveness refers to an organization with a characteristic that is forward-looking and responsive in the industrial environment it involves in. Risk-taking means an organization pursues an entrepreneurial opportunity without regarding the resources it may have or may not have. Recently, entrepreneurial orientation has been viewed as a strategic approach in decision making process as well as means of explaining firm performance (Green,Covin, & Slevin, 2008). That is, firms with high strategic reactiveness tend to pursue, identify, create, and launch new venture opportunities and strategic renewal to sustain competitive advantages. In addition,market orientation represents an organization’s business philosophy on its market concept, which puts stresses on satisfying customers and market needs effectively and efficiently. The degree of market orientation represents an organization’s responsiveness toward market and customers demands. Most scholars have tended to adopt Jaworski and Kohli (1993) and Narver and Slater’s (1990) definition of market orientation that focus on an organization’s market behavior with three dimensions: intelligence generation, intelligence dissemination, and responsiveness. Hence, entrepreneurial orientation and market orientation share common theme but are two distinct variables. Lumpkin and Dess (1996) have proposed the importance of contingency perspective in explaining how entrepreneurial orientation enhances the firm performance. In other words, entrepreneurial orientation and market orientation are set of business beliefs and philosophy. Resource-based theory does not rule out the possibility that beliefs alone are of some value to outcome, especially individual-level related performance. It is organizational practice as the moderator play the vital role in promoting both firm-level and employee-level outputs. Both entrepreneurial orientation and market orientation still require organizational learning systems and practices to facilitate higher-order learning and innovation (Backer & Sinkula, 2009; MorganLumpkin and Dess (1996) have proposed the importance of contingency perspective in explaining how entrepreneurial orientation enhances the firm performance. In other words, entrepreneurial orientation and market orientation are set of business beliefs and philosophy.Resource-based theory does not rule out the possibility that beliefs alone are of some value to outcome,especially individual-level related performance. It is organizational practice as the moderator play the vital role in promoting both firm-level and employee-level outputs. Both entrepreneurial orientation and market orientation still require organizational learning systems and practices to facilitate higher-order learning and innovation (Backer & Sinkula, 2009; Morgan & Berthon, 2008). An organization with high degree of entrepreneurial orientation and market orientation still require organizational learning mechanism to create an environm ent where mutually beneficial relationships between employees and their organizations to facilitate learning and innovati on. Developing the organization’s learning capability is one approach that enables an organization to keep pace with the changing environment. Hence, organizational learning may make an organization learn and innovate effectively.Learning orientation, a kind of knowledge-based resource capability, has been acknowledged as a key process that contributes to successful innovation, which determines and supports an organization’s success (Casey, 2005). Organizational learning is defined as the process of acquiring, distributing,integrating, and creating information and knowledge among organizational members (Dixon, 1992;Huber, 1991). The processes of learning orientation involve key components that support knowledge productivity processes, which include searching for information, assimilating, developing and creating new knowledge on products, processes, and services (Verdonschot, 2005). Organizations require competent people to learn and interpret new market information and technology changes from the external environment (Birdthistle & Fleming, 2005; Casey, 2005). Organizational members not only need to have the capability to process information efficiently but also to create new knowledge faster than other competitors. The literature has also connected learning orientation to the principle means of achieving strategic renewal in an organization (Crossan & Berdrow, 2003). Therefore, learning orientation has been viewed as one foundational source of competitive advantage and has also become equated with innovative efficiency in the innovation literature (Lopez, Peon, & Ordas, 2005). In more recent years, strategic human resource management (HRM) practices have focused on learning and knowledge creation to enhance individuals’ innovation competencies and collaboration within organizations (Harrison & Kessels, 2003). Cano and Cano’s (2006) empirical study has also demonstrated that it is HRM practices that impact an organization’s employees innovation performance. HRM professionals often serve as facilitators in cultivating an organization’s structure and culture to encourage learning and innovation at every level within an organization. Saru (2005) has acknowledged that individual-level learning and innovation development can be facilitated under a clear linkage between corporate strategy and HRM practices. In other words, learning orientation must be coherent with an organization’s design, strategy, structure, and strategic HRM practices and context. As a result, learning orientation not only impacts organizational performance but also acts as a moderator in improving variables on individual performance (Bapuji & Crossan, 2004).

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