|کد مقاله||سال انتشار||مقاله انگلیسی||ترجمه فارسی||تعداد کلمات|
|97380||2017||16 صفحه PDF||سفارش دهید||12960 کلمه|
Publisher : Elsevier - Science Direct (الزویر - ساینس دایرکت)
Journal : Habitat International, Volume 69, November 2017, Pages 78-93
Since the reform and opening up, urban spatial organization in China has changed from a planned economy mode to a market driven economy. From 1978 to 2016, the cities in mainland China have developed five types of housing systems: commercial housing, new Danwei housing, affordable housing, demolition resettlement housing, and self-built housing. The reform of the housing system that was started in the 1990s allowed and led to a rapid growth of the commercial housing market, which also resulted in an obvious suburbanization trend. At the same time, the housing reform policy led to the gradual process of marketing individual Danwei within compound housing systems. The state allowed these properties the right to conduct market transactions. However, some policies from the planned economy period remained in place. The Danweis were allowed to retain right of residence and the original management of the Danwei's courtyard but without any trading rights. Demolition resettlement housing and affordable housing are low cost houses built by the local government for the demolished group and the protected group, respectively. The latter can carry on the market transactions after satisfying certain conditions. Self-build housing mainly refers to the rural collective construction of farmers under the ownership of the housing group. Based on the result of the institutional design and benefit game, the land on which the buildings were to be built was part of the structure of the marketing process. Land acquisition negotiations that ranged from simple to complex and profits that ranged from low to high, showed whether lands were being utilized well or were under-developed. These lands are designated as public lands, farmland, industrial lands, Danwei industry courtyards, farmer's homesteads, and institutional lands and courtyards. This has led to a more stable, multivariate, mosaic mixed hybrid urban residential spatial structure in Chinese mainland cities based on the institutional perspective. At the same time, due to the disadvantaged position of the demolition population in the political and economic environment, the location of demolition resettlement housing and affordable housing are gradually being pushed to the suburbs. It is a distinctly different urban residential spatial structure from the cities in Western countries and countries in transition. This embodies the logic of power operation, capital circulation and accumulation and its dual roles. This structure also reflects the complex feature of cooperation and games between different levels of power and social stratum.