سیستم های مدیریت ارتباط با مشتری (CRM) و آموزش سازمانی: کشف رابطه بین اثربخشی CRM و جهت دهی اطلاعات مشتری بوسیله شرکت در بازارهای صنعتی
|کد مقاله||سال انتشار||مقاله انگلیسی||ترجمه فارسی||تعداد کلمات|
|991||2009||9 صفحه PDF||سفارش دهید||7280 کلمه|
Publisher : Elsevier - Science Direct (الزویر - ساینس دایرکت)
Journal : Industrial Marketing Management, Volume 38, Issue 2, February 2009, Pages 198–206
The firm's customer relationship management (CRM) system is frequently a central element of the knowledge management function of the firm. It integrates information from internal and external sources to guide managers and field personnel in the development and presentation of the firm's value proposition. But despite the widespread adoption of CRM systems by firms operating in business-to-business markets, there is continued management skepticism concerning the effectiveness of these systems and their association with the firm's overall “customer information orientation.” The present study seeks to shed light on these topics by evaluating the relationship between the customer relationship orientation of the firm and its use of CRM, as well as the association of CRM use with overall firm performance in B-to-B settings across a range of traditional business performance measures. The authors employ a multi-method approach to determine the key variables, including: database currency, internal database utilization, database accuracy and performance based reward systems utilized to operationalize the construct “the firm's customer information orientation” in order to develop statistical measures of the relationships of selected variables. The results of the study provide support for the finding that customer information orientation is indeed associated with CRM system implementation and that CRM use is associated with firm performance in B-to-B markets.
Organizational knowledge management, often referred to in practice as “the learning organization,” is an important topic in the organizational literature. Alavi and Leidner (2001) define knowledge management as “the knowledge-based perspective [on organizations]” which “postulates that the services rendered by tangible resources depend on how they are combined and applied, which is in turn a function of the firm's know-how” (p. 107). Sun, Li and Zhou (2006) define this process as “adaptive learning,” the process of using the firm's information to derive market and competitive intelligence. The customer relationship management (CRM) system is a key to this process of continuous adaptation to the firm's environments, which is the monitoring of external changes and adapting internal cultures and processes in response to external challenges (Senge et al., 1999). As a result, the number of implemented CRM systems, generally in the form of IT databases and communications systems has grown markedly during the past ten years (DeSisto, 2005). These implementations have generally taken the form of extended sales automation systems and enterprise resource planning (ERP) systems, in most cases replicating an existing process using modern database and networking technologies. In a survey conducted in 2004, 60% of mid-sized companies indicated their intention to initiate or expand their CRM usage, while only 2% indicated they currently had no plans to implement a CRM system (Neuborne, 2005). More recently, such shared on-demand Internet services as NetSuite, RightNow Technologies, Salesforce.com and CRM OnDemand have given smaller firms an opportunity to develop CRM capabilities at significantly lower capital outlays (Myron, 2005). The resulting solutions have improved efficiency within the narrow confines of traditional sales management, providing firms with real-time sales planning, sales team development, pipeline reporting and project tracking capabilities. Regardless of the technology platform selected by a firm, modern integrated CRMs typically combine various information sources: account plans, the company's marketing programs, and competitive and market information. CRMs also have multiple users, those for whom the database provides continuous value in helping to formulate selling and buying strategies. These users include the sales team, third-party suppliers (including service organizations, component and sub-assembly providers), corporate managers and customers. Fig. 1 summarizes the sources of CRM information and the users of that information.
نتیجه گیری انگلیسی
The present study has proposed a set of organizational characteristics, as represented by a set of “customer information orientation” scale items, associated with the implementation of CRM systems in business-to-business settings. The preliminary findings are suggestive and do not identify clearly causal relationships of the construct, customer knowledge orientation, with the organizational use of CRM systems. A number of factors make a clear determination of causation problematic, including the heterogeneity of firm organizations (and their CRM implementations) and the concomitant use of CRM and related resources for multiple organizational applications. Internal and external organizational environmental conditions further complicate a determination of causality in the factors leading to CRM use, as well as the resulting association of CRM with overall firm performance. As the in-depth exploratory interviews suggest, the concept of a “CRM system” in B-to-B applications may be interpreted differently by both systems users and non-users. To some executives, the CRM system is a logical extension of the sales management function, i.e., a better way to manage the sales organization. To other executives, CRM connotes a strategic marketing function, which is focused on the development of in-depth account plans and a team selling approach. To still others, CRM has achieved a high level of integration in the firm's enterprise resource planning (ERP), or highest level, information management platform. The Salesforce.com and Siebel applications are often identified with the first conception of CRM, while the highly integrated IBM and SAP applications may be thought of as embodying the latter conception of CRM. The results of this research provide qualified support for a finding of a relationship of the latent construct “customer knowledge orientation” with CRM use in B-to-B markets. Although still vague, this construct, as operationalized in this and other studies, is identified in the proposed model as a characteristic of the organization. A contribution of this study is in presenting this organizational characteristic as an identifiable, albeit less than perfectly measurable, construct. Study results clearly demonstrate that the operational variables may be applied jointly as predictors of CRM use. As many of the in-depth group interviewees made clear, the firm's customer-centeredness is closely associated with the breadth, depth and quality of customer information sought and collected by the firm. A number of respondents pointed out that firms are increasingly focused on understanding their business customers' needs and wants through empirical and inferential means. The CRM system may be viewed as an amorphous data management tool that serves the customer information requirements of a wide range of managers across a myriad of value-added functions. This is supported by the more than 60% of survey respondents who identified their system as serving more than a purely sales management function. There is no ambiguity concerning the potential value of a CRM system to the respondent population. There is clear support for the contention that CRM use, in B-to-B markets, is associated with firm performance improvement in overall profitability, sales force productivity, customer retention, average account sales and average account gross margins. Since these are the criteria most frequently emphasized by in-depth group interview participants, the survey results clearly present the value of CRM to the firm. Furthermore, this research clearly indicates the benefits of higher order CRM systems, those with integrated account planning, account management and management reporting capabilities. Firms employing higher order CRM capabilities had a statistically significant performance improvement over users with less evolved systems.