بهره وری نیروی کارتولیدی، نیروی کار غیرتولیدی و سرمایه: یک مطالعه بین المللی
|کد مقاله||سال انتشار||تعداد صفحات مقاله انگلیسی||ترجمه فارسی|
|10721||2006||10 صفحه PDF||سفارش دهید|
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Publisher : Elsevier - Science Direct (الزویر - ساینس دایرکت)
Journal : International Journal of Production Economics, Volume 103, Issue 2, October 2006, Pages 863–872
Productivity is defined as the amount of output produced with certain combinations of input resources (capital, labor, etc.). Recent studies have indicated the value of non-production labor (e.g., engineers, product designer, quality inspectors, and administrators) to a manufacturing plant's productivity. However, the effect of non-production labor compared to other input resources such as production labor and capital on factory productivity has not been fully investigated. Without understanding how individual input resources affect productivity, manufacturing firms can mismanage resource investment, which will ultimately hinder the growth of productivity. This study examines the relative effect of input resources on factory productivity across countries. We use data collected from 508 manufacturing plants in 16 countries to estimate and compare productivity of input resources between countries. Statistical results are presented and directions for future research are suggested.
Productivity is an index that measures output relative to input. Plants with higher productivity produce more output for a given level of input than plants with lower productivity. This higher productivity results in lower input levels to produce the same good or service, giving the firm a potential competitive advantage in the international marketplace (Lowe and Fernandes, 1994; Grubbström and Olhager, 1997; Mefford, 1991). Due to the significance of this issue, many researchers in various disciplines (e.g., economics, operations management, and engineering) have continuously studied the subject of productivity. There are various research issues pertaining to productivity including productivity measures, factors that affect productivity, office vs. factory productivity, and ways to improve productivity (Stevenson, 2004). Productivity is defined as the amount of output produced with certain combinations of input resources (e.g., capital, labor, etc.). While there can be many possible input resources, labor and capital have been the two primary input resources considered in most productivity research in the fields of economics and operations management. More recently, many studies have begun to discuss the value of non-production workers (i.e., managerial, technical, and support staff such as engineers, product designers, quality inspectors, purchasing managers, and administrators) to a manufacturing plant's productivity (Gray and Jurison, 1995; Gunasekaran et al., 1994; Kang and Hong, 2002; Krajewski and Ritzman, 2004). As automation technology replaces traditional workers, the productivity of non-production workers relative to other input resources becomes critical to improving factory productivity. The relative contribution of different input resources to productivity is an even more significant issue from the perspective of international manufacturing and outsourcing. Facing the trend of globalization, many multi-nationals have been investing in overseas facilities to improve international competitiveness. Since different countries can have over- or under-investment of different input resources (Cörvers, 1997), it is likely that managers in different countries must manage resources differently to improve plant productivity. Unfortunately, very few studies have specifically examined the international productivity of manufacturing plants on a large scale. The relative impact of various input resources (including non-production labor) on productivity between countries has not been studied despite the increasing establishment of foreign facilities. The lack of understanding of the management of plant productivity in different countries can mislead resource investment and ultimately hinder the growth of productivity. This study examines the relative influence of various input resources on manufacturing plant productivity across countries. We use data collected from 508 manufacturing plants in 16 countries to perform empirical analysis. The following section reviews relevant studies of international productivity followed by a discussion of research methodology. Both input and output measures of productivity are suggested. The statistical results and discussion are presented, followed by suggestions for future research.
نتیجه گیری انگلیسی
Recent studies have indicated the effect of non-production labor on a manufacturing plant's productivity. However, no large-scale empirical studies have been conducted to verify and compare such effects with other input resources such as production labor and capital. Moreover, research on input resource productivity at the factory level is lacking in international management. Assessing and comparing the overall levels of factory productivity across nations is extremely difficult due to differences in exchange rates, inflation, trade policies, and price differentials. This study used 508 samples collected from 16 countries to examine the relative elasticities of three input resources (production workers, non-production workers, and capital equipment) on factory productivity, without the need to estimate and compare relative productivity levels. In addition to confirming the productivity of non-production workers and relative effect of three input resources on productivity, we also developed the following hypotheses: 1. In general, production workers have lower elasticity than non-production workers or capital equipment in most countries studied. A possible inference of these findings is that the current factories are more automated and need non-production workers to support output. 2. Investment in capital equipment has a major impact on output in developed countries. This finding supports early research evidence (Hayes and Clark, 1986; van Ark and Pilat, 1993; Schmenner, 1991; Yamada et al., 1997) that improved capital investment could lead to improved productivity. 3. Central European countries and those heavily influenced by the British Empire have higher levels of non-production employee elasticity than most other countries. Future research is necessary to identify causes. Unfortunately, limited by the current data set, we are not able to explain all the statistical results. Moreover, many issues related to between-country comparisons could not be fully addressed in this study without including additional factors, such as national culture and resource scarcity. We have proposed several research hypotheses, which must be verified or refuted in the future. Obviously, this study is a crude starting point for international operations management studies to better understand the differences between countries as to how their manufacturing plants may improve and invest in their resources. Finally, this study investigated the relative effect of the input resources that have an impact on output caused by changes in the individual factors of production. Future studies of international factory productivity should adjust the relative price and exchange rate levels between countries to compare the base for each input resource and to make actual country comparisons of the level of productivity of each input resource. In general, the understanding of how and why factory productivity varies between countries is still a largely untapped area of research. As the overseas outsourcing and ventures continue to grow, this research area becomes more critical for international operations management.