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Publisher : Elsevier - Science Direct (الزویر - ساینس دایرکت)
Journal : Journal of Archaeological Science, Volume 29, Issue 8, August 2002, Pages 803–810
A collection of Islamic glazed pottery shards that were excavated from the archaeological site of Dohaleh/Northern Jordan were chemically analysed. The glazes belong to three different decorative styles. The chemical analysis of the glazes was carried out using energy dispersive x-ray fluorescence. The chemical analysis results enable the classification of the glazes into the three distinct compositional groups with reference to their principal modifier, these are: the alkaline glazes, the high lead glazes and the lead–alkali glazes. In some cases the body fabric was analysed by a combination of petrographic and chemical analysis techniques. The study show that inherited traditional techniques were combined with innovative Islamic techniques were used for the production of the glazes.
The date of the first man-made glaze is not known for certain. However, there is strong evidence that it originated from the Near East some time around 4000 (McCarthy, Vandiver & Gibson, 1995). In the first instance glaze was applied to stones such as steatite and quartz. Glaze on faience soon followed utilizing a similar technology to that of glazed stones. Approximately 2500 years is believed to have passed after the introduction on faience before glaze was used on clay substrate material. The first examples of glazes on pottery vessels are dated to the 15th century , about the same time that glass vessels are believed to have developed (Hamer, 1975: 145; Lilyquist & Brill, 1993; Moorey, 1994; McCarthy, Vandiver & Gibson, 1995). From 1500 onwards the glaze industry developed in many respects and various formulations of alkaline and lead glazes were used in various parts of the world. The Romans spread the secrets of glaze making throughout their Empire. From Rome the idea of lead glaze on pottery spread to Han China where the combination of it with the porcelain materials already known resulted in wares of a remarkable richness and quality. The existing recipes served the potters of the Byzantine Empire throughout its duration and from there spread back into Europe where they survived without much alteration up to the 18th century (Frierman, 1970). The Muslims inherited glaze making traditions from their predecessors. In addition, a number of innovations occurred. Lead–alkali–silicate and lead–silicate glazed wares were introduced along side the alkali– silicate glazes in the early Islamic period. At the time of the rise of Islam in the 7th and 8th centuries a small amount of lead glaze ceramics was made in the Near East, in Egypt and Byzantium. The prevalent ceramic tradition was one in which relief-decorated unglazed slipware predominated. The Muslims revived the old glaze tradition and gave it strong impetus with perfection and innovation. The glaze industry flourished during the Abbasid period when brilliant developments of ceramic art and technology were achieved. Different glaze formulations of lead glazes and alkali silicate glazes were used to produce local imitations of the wonderful Chinese T’ang ceramics (Frierman, 1970; Kleinmann, 1986). The Seljuk Turks introduced a new school of pottery making. They made what may be the most colourful and beautiful ceramics made outside of the Far East. Lustre was raised to a high art in Iran, especially in Kushan. The old T’ang three-colour wares were reinterpreted and faience reappeared in new forms. However, this dramatic flourishing was to be short lived. During the first half of the 13th century the Mongols swept in from Central Asia and this caused the discontinuation of the most sophisticated types and techniques. A slow but persistent artistic recovery occurred in the late 13th and 14th centuries; the most symptomatic ware was the blue or black painted wares, which were covered with a transparent glaze that ran the colours a little and had a crackle, echoing the work of the Chinese potters. Although lustre and other *Associate Professor of Archaeometry and Conservation. overglazed ceramics were made again, both the pots and techniques became widely diffused (Frierman, 1970; Perez-Arantegui, 1995). In this work, various types of Islamic glazes that were excavated from Jordan were chemically analysed in order to reconstruct their manufacturing technology. The contribution of Islamic glaze makers to the inherited glazing techniques was specially emphasized.