توسعه مدل پذیرش تکنولوژی در یک محیط پیاده سازی ERP
|کد مقاله||سال انتشار||تعداد صفحات مقاله انگلیسی||ترجمه فارسی|
|12323||2004||15 صفحه PDF||سفارش دهید|
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Publisher : Elsevier - Science Direct (الزویر - ساینس دایرکت)
Journal : Information & Management, Volume 41, Issue 6, July 2004, Pages 731–745
This paper presents an extension to the technology acceptance model (TAM) and empirically examines it in an enterprise resource planning (ERP) implementation environment. The study evaluated the impact of one belief construct (shared beliefs in the benefits of a technology) and two widely recognized technology implementation success factors (training and communication) on the perceived usefulness and perceived ease of use during technology implementation. Shared beliefs refer to the beliefs that organizational participants share with their peers and superiors on the benefits of the ERP system. Using data gathered from the implementation of an ERP system, we showed that both training and project communication influence the shared beliefs that users form about the benefits of the technology and that the shared beliefs influence the perceived usefulness and ease of use of the technology. Thus, we provided empirical and theoretical support for the use of managerial interventions, such as training and communication, to influence the acceptance of technology, since perceived usefulness and ease of use contribute to behavioral intention to use the technology.
There is a growing body of academic research examining the determinants of information technology acceptance and utilization among users  and . The theoretical foundation primarily originates from a theory on the adoption and diffusion of innovation, where individuals’ perceptions about using it are posited to influence adoption behaviors  and . Also, there are theoretical models that attempt to explain the relationship between user attitudes, perceptions, beliefs, and eventual system use. These include the theory of reasoned action (TRA) , the theory of planned behavior (TPB) , and the technology acceptance model (TAM) . Among these, TAM seems to be the most widely used by IS researchers, perhaps because of its parsimony and the wealth of recent empirical support . TAM posits that perceived usefulness and perceived ease of use of IT are major determinants of its usage. Davis  argued that research on technology acceptance needs to address how other variables affect core TAM variables, such as usefulness, ease of use, attitude and user acceptance. In a similar vein, Karahanna and Straub  observed that little attention had been paid to understanding factors that influenced the belief constructs of perceived usefulness and ease of use. They argued in favor of investigating antecedent variables that can explain the core TAM variables and extend TAM in a way that enhances our ability to better understand the acceptance and usage of existing and new IT. Factors contributing to the acceptance of an IT are likely to vary with the technology, target users, and context . Most of the prior studies have been carried out in traditional and relatively simple but important environments, such as personal computing, e-mail systems, word processing and spreadsheet software . But with the advent and adoption of complex IT systems that cut across functional and organizational boundaries requiring business process reengineering during implementation, it was clear that there is an increased need for studies that examine and extend TAM in a complex IT setting  and . In their conclusion to a meta analysis of TAM research, Legris et al.  found that most TAM studies examined the introduction of office automation software or systems development applications. They concluded that TAM research would benefit from examining the introduction of business process applications and pointed out that it would be better if it was performed in a business environment. Here, we provide specific contributions along these lines. We examine TAM within a real business environment and extended TAM by considering it in the implementation of an enterprise resource planning (ERP) system. Given its complexity, we believe an investigation of the extended TAM in this context furthers our understanding of the acceptance of complex IT. ERP systems are programs that aim to provide integrated software to handle multiple corporate functions including finance, human resources, manufacturing, materials management, and sales and distribution . The adoption of these systems by the business world has been touted as one of the most important developments in the corporate use of IT in the 1990s . They require significant organizational resources and their implementation is inherently risky due to large investments required. Thus, ERP systems represent a completely different class of IT application compared with traditional and simple IT systems. This study examined how shared beliefs in the benefits of the ERP system along with two IT implementation success factors, project communication and training, impact the core TAM variables in the context of an ERP implementation ,  and .
نتیجه گیری انگلیسی
In this study, we extended the TAM model through the addition of one belief construct, shared beliefs in the bene fi ts of an ERP system, and two external variables, training and project communication. We tested the extended TAM model in the context of an ERP implementation. This study contributed by considering a new belief construct that re fl ects on the shared understanding of the bene fi ts of the ERP system among the organizational users of the system. Second, the study considered two important and recognized factors in IS research, training and project communication, as two external factors that affect the core TAM constructs through the shared belief in the bene fi ts of ERP system. Third, it contributed by investigating and testing existing IS theory in a new IT context: the implementation of ERP systems. Unlike many IT systems, ERP systems by their very nature require simultaneous changes in business processes and information sharing and use that make it very challenging to implement. In our analysis, we have found signi fi cant support that both project communication and training affect beliefs in the bene fi ts of the ERP system. The key roles that communication plays include providing and obtaining information and creating understanding among organizational participants that leads to the formation of shared beliefs among organizational participants, especially those that are the targeted users of the innovation. Training provides the hands-on mechanism that allows users of the ERP system to explore the system both from a technical standpoint as well as from a functional perspective. It allows the users to obtain fi rst hand information and experience. It also allows them to explore the PEU of the system. Thus, training helps in the formation of the shared beliefs in thebene fi ts of the ERP system as well as affects the PEU of the system. Hence, our study con fi rms that managers may undertake strong and effective communication initiatives coupled with effective training on ERP systems to affect the core TAM variables. We found signi fi cant support that shared beliefs in the bene fi ts of ERP system affect both PU and PEU of ERP system. A shared belief in the bene fi ts of ERP system allows users to understand the various ways that the ERP system will make them productive. Additionally, the shared belief in the bene fi ts allows them to perceive the system to be easy to use and the use becomes more meaningful in day to day routines. We have found no support that PEU affects the for- mation of attitude towards ERP system. This fi nding is consistent with others that show that PEU does not have a signi fi cant on attitude in a fi eld setting  .In an ERP environment users are more concerned with the larger goal of how an ERP system supports busi- ness processes rather than the technology itself. We found that the beliefs formed regarding the usefulness of the ERP system are important in the formation of positive attitudes towards the system. If management can take appropriate steps to positively in fl uence the belief structures that bring about positive attitude formation that will then lead to more accep- tance of the technology by the organization ’ s mem- bers. One mechanism for in fl uencing belief structures is through training provided as part of the ERP imple- mentation. We found that training positively in fl u- ences the formation of shared beliefs in the bene fi ts of the system and shared beliefs in fl uence both the PU of the system and the PEU of the system. This is important and signi fi cant; it provides managers with a tool (training) to positively in fl uence the formation of beliefs that affect attitude, which in turn affects behavioral intention. By providing an appropriate training environment where users have the ability to interact with the ERP system or a prototype, managers should be able to in fl uence the formation of beliefs regarding the perceived usefulness and bene fi ts of the ERP system. Thus, although managers have recognized the importance of training in ERP implementation  , our research provides both theoretical and empirical support for why training is important and should help encourage managers in their training efforts. Another mechanism for in fl uencing belief struc- tures is project communication. Communication isconsidered a critical element in enabling people to change their attitudes and behavior [10,11] . The key roles that communication plays include providing and obtaining information and creating understanding among organizational participants that leads to the formation of shared beliefs among organizational par- ticipants. Our results indicate that if managers put in place communication mechanisms, then the commu- nication is likely to have a positive effect on the shared beliefs about the bene fi ts of the project, which will eventually lead to an increase in the acceptance of the technology. ERP implementations have been plagued by numer- ous problems and there is the need therefore to con- duct more work to provide guidance to practitioners on how to achieve implementation success. We found encouraging results on the role of external factors such as training and communication and the in fl uence of beliefs on attitude and the mediation effect of attitude on the behavioral intention to use an ERP system. Some limitations need to be considered. Although this study was conducted in a large organization that was implementing several modules of an ERP system, it is only prudent that caution be exercised in generalizing the fi ndings. Obviously, there are other factors besides training, project communication, and shared beliefs, such as the nature of the technology itself, that affect behavioral intention. When an ERP package is started, organizational members must acquire complex new knowledge, must learn to overcome the knowledge barriers and organizational changes that implementa- tion carries with it and simultaneously unlearn what they already know  .