فناوری اطلاعات و ارتباطات: مدل های ارزیابی در فرانسه
|کد مقاله||سال انتشار||تعداد صفحات مقاله انگلیسی||ترجمه فارسی|
|16434||2003||8 صفحه PDF||سفارش دهید|
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Publisher : Elsevier - Science Direct (الزویر - ساینس دایرکت)
Journal : Evaluation and Program Planning, Volume 26, Issue 2, May 2003, Pages 177–184
This paper aims at analyzing the evaluation of information and communication technology (ICT) in educational settings in France. First, it focuses on some characteristics of the French educational system and analyzes the trend towards a more decentralized management of education, which raises several important issues, including the trend for central evaluation to evolve from control to communication. Secondly, we define our view of ICT and evaluation. Then we present an overview of evaluation at the national level and European level and discuss some of the main research approaches in France concerning students’ learning, learning instruments, and teachers’ communities. Finally, some perspectives for the future of ICT evaluation are proposed.
As information and communication technology (ICT) keeps spreading in educational systems of industrialized countries, different stakeholders (local and national authorities, school boards, parents, etc.) have a growing interest in the issue of evaluating its uses. However, evaluating ICT in education is a complex issue, which raises many questions. What is the purpose of the evaluation? Who demands it? What should be evaluated: software, student learning and educational projects? What will the evaluation be about: learning with ICT or from ICT, assessing learning using ICT or assessing learning with ICT (Mc Dougall, 2001)? What are the stakes? How can a reliable evaluation be conducted, especially in complex situations such as technology use supporting collaborative learning? Any evaluation of ICT usage in education depends on its educational uses as defined by society. In France, two main aims can be identified: (1) educating students to use ICT in responsible ways and to become fully active citizens, aware of the social and cultural implications of the new technologies; and, (2) ensuring that the development of ICT in education contributes to the modernization and improvement of society (Eurydice, 2001a). The first aim leads to providing students with new types of situations and learning activities embedded in the curriculum. The second aim deals with educational technology and poses instructional design problems. In practice, there is often confusion between these aims, which obfuscates the problem of evaluating ICT use in education. The concept of ICT evaluation in education is deeply anchored in the cultural tradition and educational organization of a country. This implies going further into the analysis by taking into account issues specific to French culture.
نتیجه گیری انگلیسی
We have reviewed different modes of evaluation with different intentions: diagnosis, communication and innovation. They also have different functions and uses. Evaluation can be used as a management tool of the educational system, as a communication tool to show progress, as a design tool for educational situations including ICT instruments, or as a tool of self-representation for the members of a group. The evaluation of ICT projects (managing and evaluating educational technology initiatives) is certainly a difficult task. Nash, Plugge, and Eurelings (2001) identify several classical misconceptions in evaluating projects: (a) there is not a common goal among the actors; (b) there is not a common problem; (c) there is a tendency towards simplicity; and, (d) there is a tendency to overlook the usefulness of traditional research paradigms. In this respect, according to Denis Meuret, France has a unique perspective: “French policy makers have chosen an original regulation process based more upon exhortation than upon sanction or reward, more upon processes than upon objectives, more upon actors than upon users”.12 The system is regulated by ethical injunctions. Therefore, values, beliefs, practices and opinions put forth by teacher communities become essential in the planning process of how to use ICT. In this perspective, it is not questions with yes/no answers or quantitative measures that are at stake. Rather, the interesting questions are how-to questions: how to create interesting scenarios? how to integrate ICT into the curriculum of different subject matter? how to identify useful practices and approaches?, and so on. In this context, both quantitative and qualitative methods are in order. Quantitative indicators can provide a general overview of a system but more qualitative data are needed to interpret what is happening in specific, real-life situations. Nevertheless, whatever type of research may be carried out, it will have to take into account cultural and international considerations (Baron, Bruillard, Howell, & McNergney, 2001). A last issue deserves mention. We are experiencing an apparently overwhelming trend towards globalization and liberalism, with a growing focus on accountability. In countries like France, the educational system has mainly had for more than a century an obligation to serve every child. Now, there is a change of perspective with the growing idea that the system has an obligation to produce results. The modes of evaluation needed to achieve this new goal are not yet defined. Changes are slowly occurring. Technology may be a means to develop these two forms of evaluation: (1) evaluation for training and forecasting, and, (2) evaluation for advocating and facilitating change.