حمایت از فرایند تصمیم گیری در مراکز خدمات مدیریت تأمین تجهیزات: یک رویکرد روش شناختی
|کد مقاله||سال انتشار||تعداد صفحات مقاله انگلیسی||ترجمه فارسی|
|16898||2005||10 صفحه PDF||سفارش دهید|
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Publisher : Elsevier - Science Direct (الزویر - ساینس دایرکت)
Journal : Journal of Purchasing and Supply Management, Volume 11, Issues 5–6, September–November 2005, Pages 232–241
The aim of this paper is to make a contribution to the decision-making process related to procurement of facilities management services in the public sector, particularly with reference to local authorities. Adopting a contingency approach, a model for selecting sourcing strategies is presented. Some empirical evidence resulting from the analysis of various managers’ experiences is reported and, based on the results of the testing of the model, theoretical and managerial implications are discussed.
In recent years, both in the private and in public sectors, organizations have placed more attention on cost reduction and flexibility, concentrating on core competences and outsourcing non-core activities. However, the relevance of these activities for the organization's performance requires an accurate analysis of what it is outsourced and how (Walker et al., 2001; Kakabadse and Kakabadse, 2005). Outsourcing can be defined as the ‘contracting-out’ of services that were previously performed in-house. Outsourcing is a supply strategy often chosen as a means of increasing organizational efficiency and effectiveness (Steane and Walker, 2000). Whilst some short-term benefits for organizations can be achieved through outsourcing, there is a growing recognition that there may be longer-term costs not fully assessed by them (Bettis et al., 1992). Outsourcing can impact on the size, structure and competitiveness of purchaser and vendor sectors (IFMA Italia, 2004). Outsourcing also has an effect on employment levels, patterns and conditions (Postner, 1990). Social issues may be affected in respect of growth in earnings inequality since the contracts offered little scope to compete other than by worsening employees’ terms and conditions of employment (Patterson and Pinch, 1995). Moreover, there are political effects at local and national levels since one conclusion that might be drawn from this trend is that the public sector has managed effectively to transfer low-paid jobs into the private sector (Cully et al., 1999; Sachdev, 2001). Risks of outsourcing include losing in-house expertise and knowledge (Boston, 1996), unintentional loss of control, and reductions in quality (Lei and Hitt, 1995). There is an increasing awareness in management literature that the decision to outsource is a complex one with uncertain outcomes (Hui and Tsang, 2004). Knight and Harland (1999), argued that in the public sector there should be some sector level monitoring and, if necessary, pro-active interventions to guide and regulate local decision making since the cumulative effect of locally taken outsourcing decisions can be to create a supply market structure that is detrimental to the purchasers and suppliers in the long term. In relation to these issues, it is relevant to investigate the facilities management (FM) sector whose importance is increasing all over the world. FM is a typology of contract for services provision, which covers an extremely wide field of activities. FM encompasses workplace, facility, support services, property, corporate real estate, and infrastructure. In general, support services concerning FM range from building operational services, to construction management, and real-estate activities (Chotipanich, 2004). Thus, FM activities are complex since they require both low- and high-level technology with a broad range of abilities necessary to provide such diverse services adequately. Since its origin FM was based on the concept that it is necessary to rationalize and optimize non-core activities reducing costs. Nowadays, it is becoming important also from a strategic point of view (Then, 1999). It has become apparent that there are clear shifts in focus as the practice of FM gradually matures. It is already discernible from published literature and review of practice that the initial preoccupation with tasks and functions has given way to an emphasis on processes and their management. The changing focus on FM as an integrated resource management framework requires dramatic shifts in competencies for both the demand side (purchasers of facilities and services) and the supply side (suppliers and service contractors). The trend towards organizational downsizing and outsourcing collectively imposes on many organizations the need to review seriously the internal competencies necessary for managing this new era of choices and flexibility (Then, 1999). The paper aims to make a contribution to the decision-making process related to procurement of FM services in the public sector, particularly with reference to local authorities (LAs)’ procurement strategies. In particular, using a contingency approach, a framework for selecting the sourcing strategies is presented and the alternatives are discussed with reference to the Italian FM market. Some empirical evidence from the analysis of various managers’ experiences is reported. The specific contribution of the paper is to identify, on the basis of the literature review, authors’ experience, and direct interviews with top managers of firms directly involved in FM service provision (both public and private), the significant variables which should be taken into account when facing decisions on the outsourcing of FM in public sector organizations either to public multi-service firms or to private suppliers. The paper is organized into eight sections. The first section highlights the increasing diffusion of FM services in different countries and sectors and its growing importance in the public sector. The second section describes FM processes, main management issues and procurement alternatives in the public sector. The third section focuses on outsourcing strategies and the managerial implications of a total FM approach. The fourth section identifies main contributions presented in the literature about the identification of variables relevant for sourcing decisions. The fifth section presents a conceptual framework for supporting decision-making process in choosing sourcing strategies. The sixth section reports the testing of the conceptual framework through direct interviews with top managers involved in FM service provision. The seventh section explains how the framework could be applied to the FM services required by LAs. Finally, some conclusions are proposed.
نتیجه گیری انگلیسی
The FM sector is acquiring increasing importance in the public sector all over the world. Since different sourcing strategies are available for FM services provision, it is necessary to identify the relevant variables to be taken into account when facing decisions on whether to outsource or retain FM services in house. This paper aims to make a contribution to the decision-making process related to procurement of facility services by LAs. Using a contingency based approach, a model for selecting appropriate sourcing strategies has been presented. Notwithstanding the fact that the study and the testing activities have been conducted with reference to Italian experiences, the analysis, discussion and conclusions have been presented taking into account the international research findings and positioning the Italian approach in the wider international framework. The proposed model is based on a literature review, authors’ experience, and direct interviews with several actors in the FM markets. However, due to the limited dimension of the sample of interviewed actors, no general conclusions can be drawn, even if the general framework provided would be useful for a more accurate definition of the model. An attempt to specify how the framework could be used as a decision-making tool is made. The reported application to the Italian market is encouraging for the next steps of the research that will involve other actors, which should add robustness to the analysis. The possibility to generalize the model to public sector organizations other than LAs, such as health and education authorities, will be explored.