ایجاد احساسات از طریق وب سایت های B2C
|کد مقاله||سال انتشار||تعداد صفحات مقاله انگلیسی||ترجمه فارسی|
|24001||2008||10 صفحه PDF||سفارش دهید|
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Publisher : Elsevier - Science Direct (الزویر - ساینس دایرکت)
Journal : Business Horizons, Volume 51, Issue 5, September–October 2008, Pages 419–428
Compared to offline media communications, business-to-consumer (B2C) websites possess unique characteristics that affect the likelihood of generating emotional reactions to the web experience itself, the brand, fellow customers, and employees of the firm. The emotion-causing antecedents elucidated in this article are the website's vividness, interactivity, challenge, interaction speed, machine memory, and allowable social interactions. Depending on how a website performs on these dimensions, positive or negative emotions may result. For example, using machine memory to automatically generate purchase recommendations based on prior consumption patterns may be perceived as pleasantly surprising, while a firm sending unsolicited emails based on a user's cookie trail may be annoying. Regardless of the valence of the resultant emotion, the feelings generated may attach to the brand. Because a goal of brand managers is to get consumers to associate positive emotions with a brand, a pre-condition to developing and managing a website is understanding these emotion evoking antecedents and their ramifications.
Features that online media, but generally not offline media, possess include offering users the opportunity to interact with the website, effect the challenge involved during the user-website interaction, control content, and connect with other people. In addition, the web host can learn about the user and capitalize on this knowledge via machine memory. We start with the supposition that all media can be emotive, not always in a positive way, noting that features unique to the Internet confer emotion-evoking advantages that offline media lacks. Prompting and attaching positive emotions to a brand increases customer loyalty, trust, and market share (Fournier, 1998; Steenkamp & Dekimpe, 1997). Consumers increasingly turn to the Internet to search for, evaluate, purchase and, in some cases, virtually consume products. Online consumer decision processes can be cognitively demanding and highly emotive. Websites must therefore be carefully managed, and offer an engaging customer experience. How is this done? Research pertaining to web use in general has unearthed antecedents (Novak, Hoffman, & Yung, 2000) leading to flow, which Hoffman and Novak (1996, p. 57) define as “a seamless sequence of responses facilitated by machine interactivity …[that is] intrinsically enjoyable … accompanied by a loss of self-consciousness, and … self-reinforcing.” However, these authors caution that their research “has not considered the specific elements of commercial Web site design that facilitate a compelling experience, nor how this experience is likely to vary across the wide range of commercial sites found on the Web today” ( Novak et al., 2000, p. 33). The overarching objective of the research effort here is to fill this void. More specifically, the contribution of this article is threefold. First, based on an extant review of the literature, we present a conceptual model of six characteristics unique to business-to-consumer (B2C) websites that affect the likelihood of generating emotional reactions to the web experience itself, the brand, fellow customers, and employees of the firm. These feelings subsequently attach to the brand, thereby affecting consumer behavior. In addition to highlighting the antecedents causing emotions, we note which are or are not under the control of the webmaster. Second, while the intent of the model is to show how to create positive emotions, we share examples of how underperforming on these characteristics can cause negative emotions. Indeed, because users are exposed to multiple content elements within a website (such as FAQs, email enquiries, and payment systems), various brand or product announcements (video clips and brand descriptions), and interface with a variety of actors (customer representatives and fellow chat room guests), it is reasonable to assume that web environments are particularly prone to evoking multiple feelings—some good and some not. Insights on mixed emotions are shared. Third, we present managerial implications. Collectively, these insights are directed toward brand managers, promotion coordinators, and IT staff responsible for website design and maintenance.
نتیجه گیری انگلیسی
The benefits of attaching positive feelings to a brand are well documented: it increases brand loyalty, trust and, ultimately, market share (Fournier, 1998; Steenkamp & Dekimpe, 1997). There are many ways of encouraging positive feelings, the most meaningful of which is for a customer to have a satisfying experience using the product; this assumes a firm has gotten that far in the consumer's decision making process. Within this article, we have highlighted a comparatively new approach to generating feelings toward an organization and its brands; namely, through an engaging business-to-consumer website experience. B2C websites possess characteristics that differentiate them from other forms of media communications. We focused on six: vividness, interactivity, challenge, interaction speed, machine memory, and allowable social interactions. We are not discounting the relevance of findings unearthed in relation to offline media, such as the amount of competing stimuli (in short, too much is bad), copy style (consistency is good) and ad layout (there are consistent patterns of search), that affect an individual's processing effort. Rather, in addition to these issues, the unique characteristics of websites elucidated herein can be and are themselves emotive, examples of which were shared in Figure 1. Consumers increasingly turn to B2C websites to search for, evaluate, purchase and, in some cases, virtually consume products. In doing so, it is increasingly likely they will engage in multiple actions, such as reading brand descriptions, downloading a video clip, or entering a chat room. Given the multiplicity of actions, websites are prone to evoking a variety of emotions. Evidence to date suggests that the dominant or peak emotion felt, or the last emotion experienced, is likely to be best remembered, and therefore have a disproportionate effect on overall evaluations of the web experience as well as the brand. It is the resultant feeling that attaches to a brand, either directly via affect transfer or indirectly via cognitive elaboration. It therefore behooves a brand manager to be cognizant of these six characteristics, and to manage them appropriately to mitigate the possibility of a lingering negative feeling. In some cases, this is best achieved by removing functions within a website—better to do a function right or not do it at all. The array of purposes and functionalities of B2C websites is vast, as is the variance in capabilities and interest levels of website users. Nevertheless, because interacting with a website involves multiple activities, it should be assumed that a series of independent emotions unfolds. Techniques now exist for tracking these moment-to-moment responses and their influence on overall evaluations. Baumgartner, Sujan, and Padgett (1997) used what they called a feelings monitor, whereby participants moved a cursor horizontally left or right to reflect strong negative feelings, neutral feelings, or strong positive feelings. In that case, the technique was used to track feeling states while watching advertisements. This technique can be modified for use in a website testing lab by using, for example, a galvanic skin test or EEG to provide proxy measures for feeling states, where accelerated heart rate and moist skin indicate heightened arousal. Even without this level of sophistication it should be apparent that, like advertisements, websites should be pre-tested for their efficacy, both in terms of the cognitions generated and the emotions evoked. Given the heterogeneity of shopping orientations ( Brown et al., 2003), pre-testing should be done on at least two groups: one with low to moderate levels of interest or involvement, and another with high levels of interest or involvement. Ideally, what is presented on the website will appeal to both. Low involvement users want quick solutions—a Management Summary, if you will—whereas high involvement individuals want to be engaged longer and therefore desire more content. We are not so presumptuous to believe that we have presented the panacea for website success. Our objective was to integrate and elaborate upon six characteristics relevant to websites that, to date, have been little understood or overlooked. These characteristics can cause emotions, both positive and negative, which affect evaluations of brands. Therefore, the insights herein have practical import to brand managers, promotion coordinators, and IT staff responsible for website design and maintenance.