مطالعه موردی در امداد رسانی حوادث غیرمترقبه: تجزیه و تحلیل توصیفی از مشارکت های آژانس در پیامدهای پس از زلزله ژانویه 12th، 2010 در هائیتی
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Publisher : Elsevier - Science Direct (الزویر - ساینس دایرکت)
Journal : Socio-Economic Planning Sciences, Volume 46, Issue 1, March 2012, Pages 67–77
This study analyzes the disaster response and recovery efforts following the January 12th, 2010 Haitian earthquake through the eyes of 18 different relief agencies. Focusing on the formation and maintenance of partnerships after the catastrophic earthquake, this paper explores the concepts of cooperation, mutual understanding, and connectivity among agencies responding to the earthquake. The case study is based on results from interviews and interactions with 18 agencies during a month-long trip to Haiti in the summer of 2010. Of the agencies interviewed, it was found that agencies that had no partnerships or presence in Haiti prior to the earthquake were most likely to build new clinics, orphanages, and schools. Additionally, we found that agencies were more likely to develop new partnerships from new contacts rather than dormant contacts. By studying the partnerships between local and international agencies, it was found that their relationships were less stable than partnerships between international agencies. This study hopes to increase understanding and applicability of research in disaster relief networks by providing a new perspective into how agencies work together.
On January 12th, 2010 at 4:53 PM, an earthquake measuring 7.0 on the Richter scale struck 13 miles west of the Haitian capital of Port-au-Prince. There were reports of up to 59 aftershocks, each registering greater than 4.5 on the Richter scale, in the 11 days following the earthquake . Official estimates of the death toll range from 200,000 to more than 250,000 people, making the January 12th earthquake the 5th most deadly earthquake in recorded history ,  and . Estimates by the Inter-American Development Bank put the cost of the damage to the region somewhere between $8.1 and $13.9 billion dollars using data from previous disasters to guide their estimates . Different sources of aid, personnel, and funding have poured into the region from around the world in an international effort to respond to the earthquake and give the Haitian people hope for a brighter future. The size and scope of the disaster in Haiti has attracted much attention from governments and agencies around the world. While there is a great deal of good that can come from individual agency efforts, the importance of coordination between different agencies has been shown to increase agency efficiency . Agencies responding to the earthquake could maximize operational efficiency by working together to reduce duplicated services and maximize utilization of available resources. Using interviews from a cross-section of agencies responding to the disaster in Haiti, this research aims to identify trends in partnership development and utilization during the Haitian recovery. This paper addresses the following four areas in the context of optimal resource allocation: 1) key dynamics affecting partnership efficiency and logistics 2) trends in partnership development and utilization 3) changes in agencies’ level of involvement before and after the earthquake, and 4) common metrics that could be used for agency efficiency assessment. This paper is organized into 6 sections. Section 2 provides a discussion of relevant literature and provides an analytic framework for this research. Section 3 provides details about the approach for the study conducted in Haiti, while Section 4 provides results of 18 interviews conducted with agencies responding to the earthquake in Haiti acquired during a four-week trip to Haiti. Some case-specific results that provide insight into the dynamics of this particular study are reviewed in Section 5. Finally, Section 6 reviews the key conclusions from the study, as well as enumerating some research topics for further analysis.
نتیجه گیری انگلیسی
In this study we have discussed results from a broad case study of agencies responding to the 2010 Haitian earthquake. Using data collected during a trip to Haiti and interviews with 18 different relief organizations active in the response, new insight into how these agencies work together was provided. In addition, we have also provided methods and guidance for how future studies could be conducted in this field and what areas might benefit the most from more extensive research. The results of the surveys also provide some questions about whether the commonly accepted trends in humanitarian logistics accurately represent the actual dynamics experienced by agencies responding to large disasters such as Haiti. Interagency relationships have been the focus of many studies in social science literature, but this study provides a different approach that necessitates further research in the development of more accurate and applied modeling of disaster relief. In addition, this study provides qualitative input from emergency managers on how to conduct a future study to measure the impact of different partnerships and groups. Using commodity costs, a future study could provide a more accurate method of modeling dynamic resource allocation disaster relief operations. We propose that more complete modeling of responding agencies could be accomplished by delimiting the type, source, and cost, of several key commodities following a disaster, and correlating this data to the partnership composition of responding agencies. Game theory would be a suitable methodology to formally model such partnership . Additionally, more accurate recommendations could be made regarding the optimal partnership mix for agencies entering a disaster. Though time-lapsed data for agency expenditures would prove extremely useful in expanding such a model, any effort to identify trends in emergency recovery operations would likely need direct support from a large agency. Through improved application of resources and increased knowledge of partnership expectations, managers will be able to develop and maintain better productive and efficient relationships in disaster relief operations. Through the development of models that integrate these new results, emergency managers will be better prepared to respond to future disasters with confidence. It is estimated that it will take Haiti over two decades to recover from the January 12th, 2010 earthquake and return to its previous state. In the complex and interconnected world we live in, helping the large number of agencies working in Haiti, Japan, and other disaster struck countries work together will require an increased understanding of inter-agency relationship dynamics in disaster relief operations.