نقش انگیزش در رضایت بازدید کننده : شواهد تجربی در گردشگری روستایی
|کد مقاله||سال انتشار||تعداد صفحات مقاله انگلیسی||ترجمه فارسی|
|4921||2010||6 صفحه PDF||سفارش دهید|
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Publisher : Elsevier - Science Direct (الزویر - ساینس دایرکت)
Journal : Tourism Management, Volume 31, Issue 4, August 2010, Pages 547–552
Motivation and satisfaction are two concepts widely studied in tourism literature; the relevance of these constructs being derived from their impact on tourist behaviour. The purpose of this paper is to investigate the relationship between motivation and visitor satisfaction. A survey questionnaire was distributed to visitors at a rural destination in Spain and the data analysed by ANOVA, factor and cluster analyses. The results verified our hypothesis that motivation is a determinant of the visit assessment criteria and, as a direct consequence, of the level of satisfaction (specific factors) of the visitor. However, this investigation also detected the existence of certain elements, which are independent of the reasons that motivated the journey (general factors), but which affect general satisfaction. Based on our findings, implications for management and marketing are presented.
Tourism can be considered, in one of its many aspects, as a socio-psychological experience (Castaño, 2005, Ross and Iso-Ahola, 1991, Rubio, 2003 and Wacker, 1996). Although factors such as socio-demographic characteristics affect tourist behaviour, other factors related to the customer's subjective experience are strongly emerging to explain this complex process. In this context, motivation and satisfaction are two essential elements that determine individual behaviour in the field of tourism. A review of previous literature on tourism motivation reveals that people travel because they are “pushed” into travelling by internal reasons or factors, or because they are “pulled” by destination attributes (Crompton, 1979, Dann, 1977, Dann, 1981 and Uysal and Jurowski, 1994). Push factors are more related to internal or emotional aspects, such as the desire for escape, rest and relaxation, adventure, or social interaction. Pull factors are linked to external, situational, or cognitive aspects, of which, attributes of the chosen destination, leisure infrastructure and cultural or natural features are examples. Nevertheless, these destination attributes may reinforce push motivations (Yoon & Uysal, 2005). Thus, motivation has become a meta-concept that functions as a trigger for travel behaviour and determines different aspects of tourist activity, in respect of (i) the reasons for travelling or why, (ii) the specific destination or where, (iii) and the results obtained or overall satisfaction with the trip (Castaño, Moreno, García, & Crego, 2003). The last element of the cycle is key in the field of tourism. Its relevance lies in the role it plays in repetitive purchase or service patterns, i.e. in the loyalty towards a product, brand or destination (Barsky and Nash, 2002, García and Gil, 2005 and Yoon and Uysal, 2005); in the favourable criticism it generates and therefore, the positive marketing communicated by word of mouth (Oh, 1999, Oppermann, 2000 and Rodríguez del Bosque et al., 2006); or in the increase of company benefits (Anderson, Fornell, & Lehman, 1994). The relationship between motivation and satisfaction has already been studied in tourism research from different perspectives and working methodologies (see, for example, Ibrahim and Gill, 2005, Laguna and Palacios, 2009, Oliver, 1980 and Severt et al., 2007), and applied studies have been carried out for different sectors of the market (Devesa and Palacios, 2005, Devesa and Palacios, 2006, García and Gil, 2005, Lee et al., 2004, Lopes, 2006, Qu and Ping, 1999 and Rodríguez del Bosque et al., 2006, among others). Román, Recio, and Martín (2000) point out that the current demand trend towards greater segmentation can be mostly explained because of the diversification of visitor motivation. Therefore, diversification is a very valuable element when directing the expansion of emerging tourism products such as rural tourism. Moreover, these authors affirm that an offer exclusively based on countryside and fresh air is insufficient to be considered as a determining factor for a satisfactory experience of a visit. The object of this research is to analyse the relation existing between motivation and satisfaction obtained by visitors in the rural tourism sector. More specifically, the study examines the influence of motivation — as trigger factor and antecedent for tourism behaviour — on the satisfaction obtained by the visitor to the destination. We maintain that individuals visiting a particular tourist destination, irrespective of the reason, will obtain a higher or lower satisfaction level depending on their evaluation of those aspects of their visit or destination which are more closely related to their motivation for travel.
نتیجه گیری انگلیسی
Understanding the variables that moderate and determine tourism satisfaction is extremely important in a highly competitive context with informed and demanding tourists. It is an essential condition for the success of any destination and a crucial aid to competitiveness. The relationship between motivation and satisfaction has been demonstrated in previous tourism literature and that individuals travelling to a particular destination can have very different motives. This highlights the existence of different motivation schemes for a particular destination that affect tourists' expectations and, therefore, their overall satisfaction. Thus, a more in depth study of the relationship between the two concepts, with a special emphasis on identifying the segmentation of visitors' motives, is needed. The present study has characterized four market segments for the sample of visitors: a visitor looking for tranquillity, rest and contact with nature; cultural visitor; proximity-gastronomic and nature visitor; and return tourist. These typologies have been identified using motivational factors relating to a particular rural destination in Spain. The results have shown that individuals make different evaluations of certain factors, activities and destination attributes depending on their relation to the reasons that motivated or determined the trip. This fact allows us to identify the existence of a relationship between typologies of visitors classified according to their motives and their evaluation of elements that compose the destination's tourist opportunities and the visitor's experience. For example, the tourists that we have named “cultural visitors”, who present high levels of satisfaction, have registered statistically significant higher evaluations of those items related to their cultural motivation, inter alia: monument and museum opening hours, guided tours and the conservation of monumental heritage. This reveals the existence of certain specific satisfactory elements directly linked to the motivation for the trip. Therefore, service providers at tourist destinations need also to focus on these specific attributes and services as they will impact on the tourist's level of satisfaction. On the other hand, we have also found the existence of certain elements that strongly affect global satisfaction and function independently of the reasons motivating the trip. We could call them “general satisfiers.” Aspects like treatment received, gastronomy quality, opening hours, availability of services (restaurants and leisure activities), and tourist information, affect visitor satisfaction in all identified segments. However, some of them — as is the case with gastronomic quality — can have a specific character, as they are connected to the motivation of a certain visitor typology. The identification of these attributes, which are able to determine visitor satisfaction independently from the visit motivation, is very useful in the direction of marketing planning for the destination. This is especially true of those decisions linked to its configuration and planning as a product. Destination managers will have to dedicate the necessary resources and effort to ensure that such aspects are correctly managed because of their influence on the visitors' general satisfaction, regardless of their motivation and socio-demographic characteristics. The diversity in the tourist market also requires improved identification and strengthening of those attributes that function as specific satisfactory elements. These elements may determine the satisfaction of certain segments. We need to be especially careful with those segments that, either because of their size or appeal, are a priority for a particular destination. Finally, a few limitations of the study should be addressed. First, the sample was drawn exclusively from visitors to a specific rural tourism destination in Spain. This may cause possible non-representation issues and, thus, the results should not be generalized. Second, the sample was comprised of people who came only from regions within Spain. It could be interesting, as a future line of research, to replicate the study with a questionnaire adapted to international tourists as different cultural values may affect both service delivery and visitor experience.