فراتر از مریخ و ونوس : تفاوت های جنسیتی در درک تحمل ریسک مالی
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Publisher : Elsevier - Science Direct (الزویر - ساینس دایرکت)
Journal : Journal of Economic Psychology, Volume 42, June 2014, Pages 148–160
Research indicates that men are more risk tolerant and make riskier financial decisions than women. To explain this, researchers have favored “essentialist” explanations that attribute differences to core biological mechanisms and have tended to neglect psychological mechanisms that reflect the influence of culture and socialization. To better understand gender differences in risk tolerance, we investigated the relative effects of multiple psychological dimensions of gender, including gender identification (i.e., identifying as one’s biological sex and viewing it as a positive part of the self), gender typicality (i.e., feeling like a typical member of one’s biological sex), and gender-stereotyped personality traits and social roles. We also measured 2D:4D digit ratios as an indicator of prenatal testosterone exposure. Stereotypically masculine or instrumental personality traits (e.g., strong, acts as a leader) were associated with more risk tolerance in both men and women but were relatively more important for understanding men’s risk tolerance. Stereotypically feminine or communal personality traits were associated with less risk tolerance in women. Women who identified more with other women, and men who identified less with other men showed greater risk tolerance. Digit ratio was not associated with risk tolerance. Further research focused on psychological gender and risk tolerance is emphasized.