مطالعه در مورد سیستم مدیریت زیست محیطی از تولید بتن مخلوط آماده در ترکیه
|کد مقاله||سال انتشار||تعداد صفحات مقاله انگلیسی||ترجمه فارسی|
|6458||2006||7 صفحه PDF||سفارش دهید|
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Publisher : Elsevier - Science Direct (الزویر - ساینس دایرکت)
Journal : Building and Environment, Volume 41, Issue 8, August 2006, Pages 1099–1105
The construction industry as one of the leading industries of the Turkish economy makes up approximately 60% of total investments. Because of the widespread use of concrete building systems used in construction work in Turkey, concrete production is also quite high. In this study, the application levels of the methods of environmental management in regards to the ready mixed concrete production in Turkey were determined. In Turkey a wide ranging environmental laws about this subject exists. However, it is known that there are problems in its implementation. As a result of this study, it has been determined that there are differences between plants in their environmental applications of the ready mixed concrete production in Turkey, and despite the strides taken in this area; it has not achieved the desired levels. Therefore, inspections must be increased in order to strengthen the enforcement of the rules and regulations of the environmental laws in Turkey.
Turkey is a developing country with one of the fastest population growths among European countries . Due to this rapid growth, urbanization in Turkey is rapid and the need for housing is increasing. Turkey's largest city, Istanbul, is also growing and receiving heavy migration. According to the results of the 2000 general census, 15% of the total population and 11% of the total number of buildings in Turkey are in Istanbul . The construction industry is one of the leading industries of the Turkish economy. This industry makes up approximately 60% of the total investments . Because of the widespread use of concrete building systems in construction work in Turkey, concrete production is also quite high. The production of ready mixed concrete in Turkey began in the late 1970s, and after 1987 began to spread to areas with a high rate of urbanization such as Istanbul, Ankara, Izmir and Adana. With the increased use of ready mixed concrete, the quality and reliability issues of concrete gained importance. Because a large part of Turkey lies within an earthquake zone, the quality of concrete in relation to structural integrity has become an issue of utmost importance. Attempts to start a trade organization were begun in 1988 within the ready mixed concrete industry and the Turkish Ready Mixed Concrete Association (TRMCA) was formed to facilitate technical coordination between producers, provide guidance and ensure production be done within the framework of public safety and Turkish standards . According to 2003 data, with a View the MathML source28.2millionm3 concrete production capacity, Turkey is seventh among European Ready Mixed Concrete Organization (ERMCO) member states . Despite the slowdown in the construction industry after the earthquakes in 1999, there has been an increase in the number of ready mixed concrete plants. According to TRMCA data, in 2004 View the MathML source31.590.886m3 concrete was produced by 245 companies and 473 plants. Forty percent of the plants are located in the Marmara region, while 50% of these provide service to Istanbul . As we feel the negative results of environmental problems even more so today, it is known that buildings and building materials contribute to these in various ways. That is why it is vital to research the environmental impact of this material in Turkey where the use of concrete is quite high. A study evaluating the quality of the ready mixed concrete industry has been previously done in Turkey . In this study, research was conducted in regards to applications that would minimize the environmental impact of the ready mixed concrete production in Turkey. The purpose of this study is to determine the implementation levels of the procedures as to its environmental management, recognize the problems and provide solutions to overcome them. There are sufficient environmental laws that encompass these implementations , , , , , ,  and . However, it is well-known that there are problems regarding their execution. With efficient environmental management, the negative effects of the ready mixed concrete production are reduced and the material is considered more environmentally friendly. Turkey became a signatory of the UN Global Compact Programme signed at the 1999 Davos Summit which encourages the development and diffusion of environmentally friendly technologies. In this context, just like any industrial production in our country, it is expected that building material production technologies be ecological, environmentally friendly and a process that inflicts minimal damage to environmental values.
نتیجه گیری انگلیسی
According to the field study, the levels of environmental protection methods concerning ready mixed concrete production in Turkey vary between plants. While methods that solve these problems are mostly realized at some of the plants, at others they are extremely inadequate. It is a positive development that almost half of the plants have planted trees in order to prevent dust emissions, one of the most important problems in the ready mixed concrete production. That 80% of the plants’ surface is covered with asphalt or concrete, the tops of the aggregates’ handling are covered and care is given to the use of filters in cement silos show that methods regarding dust control are generally sufficient. However, the effective method of surrounding the aggregate storage area with a wall and a canopy to prevent the dust generated by the aggregate was observed in few plants. Because of this, dust is generated from aggregate storage areas especially when there is wind. The most widespread dust prevention method used during the transportation of aggregates within the plant is the covering of the top and watering them down. It was observed that the plants researched were mostly unsuccessful regarding methods concerning solid waste management. While some disposed off the leftover concrete in landfills designated by the municipality, it was determined that some disposed off the leftover concrete in an uncontrolled manner in areas around the plant and by the sides of the roads, thus creating pollution. The most ecological approach to this is the reuse of the leftover concrete in the production of other materials. Because the level of recycling and reusing of the leftover ready mixed concrete is very low in the researched plants, this increases the amount of waste dumped into the landfills. Because the recovering of leftover concrete is low in Turkey where the use of concrete is so widespread, this leads to important economic losses along with pollution. It was observed that some plants do illegal dumping in order to avoid disposal costs. It is also stated in Kazaz's study  that “discharging waste” is the fourth most important factor considered by the firms. Therefore it is important that methods making it easier to reuse leftover concrete become widespread. The use of the leftover concrete for other purposes (producing of an appropriate concrete component, road construction, etc.) is a relevant solution. The reason for the reclaimer system not being widespread is said to be its high cost. In this case, instead of having a reclaimer system at every plant, a central system created in appropriate areas would be an environmental approach. At most of the plants, methods to reduce the amount of water consumption are used, thus reducing water costs. The fact that most of the plants researched have settling pits indicates a positive development for the reusing of wastewater. Also the ground coverings at most of the plants are set up to collect rainwater in the settling pits. Thus water protection is achieved. However, at only a small number of plants the quality control of wastewater discharge is done. A lack of inspection regarding this issue is the reason that wastewater being released into the environment cannot be prevented. Because most of the plants are located within industrial areas, noise from the plants does not have an adverse effect on the environment. However, the lack of importance given to noise reducing systems on transportation vehicles creates a problem. It was observed that precautions to prevent leakage of fuel, oil and chemical materials are insufficient. Thus the possibility of ground and water pollution will always exist. It is believed that inspections play an important role in the environmental applications of ready mixed concrete plants in Turkey. However, as a result of this study, it has been determined that inspections are insufficient in regards to adherence to environmental laws. The lack of inspections diminishes the compliance with environmental laws, and the rules cannot be fully enforced. There is also confusion between the institutions performing the inspections. The emission and wastewater control inspections of the plants are carried out by the Provincial Environment Directory. Licensing and solid waste inspection belong to the municipality. Non-adherence to the rules leads to fines levied by the office of the provincial district. This confusion has led to plants avoiding their responsibilities. It has been understood that TRMCA members’ plants give importance to environmental management and to its respective training. It was also mentioned in Kazaz's study  that plants not members of TRMCA have a low tendency of participating in such trainings. Also in the Turkish Building Industry report , it has been reported that it is an important problem that non-member plants produce without licenses, standards and inspections. In order for environment applications to be successful, it is important for every member of society, foremost the producers of materials, to feel responsible toward environmental problems. As a result of this study, it is understood that while there have been improvements regarding this subject in Turkey; it has not reached the desired level. It is believed that inspections and the power of application of the rules and regulations stipulated in the environmental laws of our country should be increased.