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Publisher : Elsevier - Science Direct (الزویر - ساینس دایرکت)
Journal : Journal of Psychiatric Research, Volume 45, Issue 12, December 2011, Pages 1593–1599
Sleep benefits the consolidation of both declarative and nondeclarative memories, however the question if these two memory systems profit from sleep in more or less similar ways is still under debate. Studying the on-line and off-line consolidation of declarative and nondeclarative memory tasks in depressed patients and healthy controls, we here present a clear double dissociation between memory systems and consolidation phases, suggesting radically different ways how sleep benefits memory consolidation. 37 medicated inpatients with an acute episode of major depression and 31 healthy controls were assessed using a nondeclarative (sequential finger tapping) memory task before and after a night with polysomnography, 27 of the depressed and 22 of the control subjects additionally performed a declarative (paired associates) task. Although depressed patients and control subjects did not differ in practice-dependent learning of the nondeclarative motor task in the wake state, healthy subjects showed overnight improvements in tapping performance of 11.4%, while the patients’ performance decreased overnight by 11.5%. This pattern was reversed for the declarative task: While patients learned 33.5% less word pairs than controls in the wake state, overnight changes did not differ between the two groups. These results suggest a double dissociation of memory consolidation processes in major depression: Off-line memory consolidation in major depression is impaired for nondeclarative, but not declarative tasks. The same tasks in the wake state show a reversed pattern, with performance in declarative but not nondeclarative tasks being impaired in major depression.