تاثیر سوء استفاده جنسی دوران کودکی در بی اشتهایی عصبی
|کد مقاله||سال انتشار||مقاله انگلیسی||ترجمه فارسی||تعداد کلمات|
|33733||2006||13 صفحه PDF||سفارش دهید||6041 کلمه|
Publisher : Elsevier - Science Direct (الزویر - ساینس دایرکت)
Journal : Child Abuse & Neglect, Volume 30, Issue 3, March 2006, Pages 257–269
Objective The aim of this study was to examine the impact of childhood sexual abuse (CSA) on clinical characteristics and premature termination of treatment in anorexia nervosa (AN). Method The participants were 77 consecutive patients with AN admitted to an inpatient eating disorders unit. The patients were assessed in terms of eating disorder symptoms, general psychopathology, and CSA history at admission to hospital. Results Thirty-seven patients (48%) reported a history of CSA before the onset of the eating disorder. Individuals with a history of CSA reported significantly greater psychiatric comorbidity, including higher levels of depression and anxiety, lower self-esteem, more interpersonal problems, and more severe obsessive-compulsive symptoms. Patients with the binge-purge subtype of AN (AN-BP) were significantly more likely to report a history of CSA prior to the onset of the eating disorder as compared with patients with the restricting subtype (AN-R) of the illness (65% of the AN-BP patients vs. 37% of the AN-R patients; p < .02). Contrary to our predictions, abused patients were not significantly more likely to dropout of treatment overall. However, patients of the binge-purge subtype (AN-BP) with a history of CSA were significantly more likely to terminate treatment prematurely as compared with the other patients. Conclusions Consistent with previous findings, the present results indicate that the prevalence of CSA is high among individuals seeking inpatient treatment for AN. A history of CSA was associated with greater psychiatric disturbance overall and a higher rate of dropout for patients of the binge-purge subtype.
Several studies have shown that a significant proportion of individuals with eating disorders report a history of childhood sexual abuse (CSA). In addition, non-eating disordered individuals with a history of CSA typically share certain features with eating disordered individuals including intense feelings of shame, low self-esteem, and body image disparagement. Consequently, several researchers have hypothesized that sexual abuse may be a risk factor for the development of eating disorders (Oppenheimer, Howells, Palmer, & Chaloner, 1985). On balance, the findings of studies examining this hypothesis have shown that sexual abuse is not a specific risk factor for eating disorders but is associated with an increased risk of psychopathology in general ( Steiger & Zanko, 1990; Thompson & Wonderlich, 2004; Welch & Fairburn, 1994; Wonderlich, Brewerton, Jocic, Dansky, & Abbott, 1997). Reviews of the research on the association between CSA and eating disorders have noted variation across studies in the estimated prevalence rate of sexual abuse in both eating disorder and control populations (Brewerton, 2004 and Thompson and Wonderlich, 2004). Such inconsistencies may reflect differences in the samples studied (e.g., clinic vs. community samples), methodological differences, as well as differences in the definitions used for sexual abuse (Wyatt and Peters, 1986a and Wyatt and Peters, 1986b). The use of face-to-face interviews has been found to be associated with higher prevalence estimates than self-report questionnaires (Wyatt & Peters, 1986a). Broader definitions of sexual abuse (e.g., abuse with or without physical contact) also produce higher prevalence rates than more restrictive definitions (Wyatt & Peters, 1986b). There is some evidence that a history of CSA is associated with greater psychiatric disturbance in individuals with eating disorders. Rorty, Yager, and Rossotto (1994) found that CSA was associated with personality pathology in a community sample of people with bulimia nervosa. Two studies found that a history of sexual abuse predicted the presence of self-injurious behavior in patients with eating disorders (Favaro & Santonastaso, 2000; Nagata, Kiriike, Iketani, Kawarada, & Tanaka, 1999). Anderson, LaPorte, Brandt, and Crawford (1997) found that eating disorder patients with a history of sexual abuse reported higher levels of depression and anxiety as compared with patients without an abuse history. Two studies found an association between a sexual abuse history and obsessive-compulsive symptoms, particularly ritualistic cleaning behavior (Folsom et al., 1993 and Lockwood et al., 2005). With two exceptions, studies to date have found no evidence that sexual abuse is associated with more severe eating disorder psychopathology in patients with eating disorders. A study by Fullerton, Wonderlich, and Gosnell (1995) found that sexual abuse was associated with higher scores on a self-report measure of eating disorder attitudes and behaviors. Another study by Waller, 1992a and Waller, 1992b showed that a history of sexual abuse was associated with more frequent episodes of binge eating and vomiting. Several studies have shown that CSA is associated with the presence of binge eating and purging behaviors in patients with eating disorders (Bulik, Sullivan, Fear, & Joyce, 1997; Deep, Lilenfeld, Plotnicov, Pollice, & Kaye, 1999; Oliosi & Dalle Grave, 2003; Waller, Halek, & Crisp, 1993). Studies of personality differences between restricting anorexia nervosa (AN-R) patients and those who binge-eat or purge (AN-BP) have found that AN-R is associated with lower novelty seeking, higher harm avoidance, and more rigid and obsessional behavior as compared with patients with AN-BP (Halmi, Kleifield, Braun, & Sunday, 1999; Kleifield, Sunday, Hurt, & Halmi, 1994). Compared with AN-R patients, those who binge-eat or purge have been found to experience more lability of mood, to be more impulsive, and are more likely to have substance abuse problems (DaCosta & Halmi, 1992). A number of studies have found the presence of bulimic symptoms in AN to be associated with a poorer treatment outcome (e.g., Fichter & Quadflieg, 1999; Halmi et al., 1979, Martin, 1985 and Theander, 1985). Given these findings, it is possible that the association between CSA and the eating disorder may be different in AN-R versus AN-BP. To our knowledge, only two studies have examined whether a history of sexual abuse affects response to treatment for an eating disorder. Anderson et al. (1997) found that bulimia nervosa patients with a history of sexual abuse demonstrated lower rates of abstinence from binge eating and purging behaviors at the end of treatment as compared with patients without a history of abuse. In addition, a significantly greater proportion of abused patients relapsed during the first three months after completing treatment. In a follow-up study of patients who had received inpatient treatment for an eating disorder, Luadzers (1998) found that a sexual abuse history reduced the likelihood of recovery from the eating disorder. However, this study was limited by the use of a self-report questionnaire to assess sexual abuse history and eating disorder status as well as a low (52%) response rate. The aim of the present study was to examine the association between CSA and clinical presentation as well as premature termination of treatment in anorexia nervosa (AN-R and AN-BP). It was hypothesized that a history of CSA would be associated with: (1) more severe eating disorder symptoms; (2) more severe general psychopathology; (3) having the binge-purge subtype of AN; and (4) an increased rate of premature termination of treatment.