هویت شخصی و رفتارهای اختلال تغذیه ای در زنان مکزیکی آمریکایی
|کد مقاله||سال انتشار||مقاله انگلیسی||ترجمه فارسی||تعداد کلمات|
|31445||2010||4 صفحه PDF||سفارش دهید||3146 کلمه|
Publisher : Elsevier - Science Direct (الزویر - ساینس دایرکت)
Journal : Eating Behaviors, Volume 11, Issue 3, August 2010, Pages 197–200
Eating disorder behaviors are prevalent in Latina populations. This study tested Schwartz's (2006) theoretical view that a broad array of personal identities serves as an internal resource during acculturation and prevents internalization of dysfunctional weight related beliefs. Sixty-six Mexican American women completed measures of personal identities, fat self-definition, eating disorder symptoms and acculturation. Results show that few positive and many negative personal identities predict higher eating disorder scores and effects are mediated through the fat self-definition. Characteristics of personal identities may influence internalization of cultural values related to weight. Interventions focused on overall identity may prevent eating disorders in Latinas.
Level of acculturation and strength of ethnic identity are considered important contributors to eating disorder (ED) symptoms in Latina populations (Alegria et al., 2007, Ayala et al., 2007, Cachelin et al., 2006, Granillo et al., 2005 and Miller and Pumariega, 2001). According to this perspective, acculturation leads to the internalization of Western values and ideals related to appearance and body weight which in turn contribute to body dissatisfaction, actual–ideal body image discrepancy and other attitudinal and behavioral correlates of the eating disorders (EDs). In contrast, lower levels of acculturation and high ethnic identity are viewed as protective factors, buffering against the reliance on values and ideals related to body weight as a key source of self-definition. However, inconsistent findings, methodological limitations, and the absence of clear mechanisms linking acculturation to behavior (Cummins, Simmons, & Zane, 2005) have led to calls for studies to address more complex and proximal sources of EDs in culturally diverse populations. In this study we focus on personal identities as an important factor in the etiology of ED attitudes and behaviors and build on a recent theoretical proposition that characteristics of the array of personal identities are central to adaptive functioning during the process of acculturation (Schwartz, Montgomery, & Briones, 2006). Personal identities are a stable set of knowledge structures that reflect the values, interests and goals specific to the individual that distinguishes her from members of her social group (Schwartz, Zamboanga, & Weisskirch, 2008). They are shaped by opportunities and constraints afforded by the socio-cultural context. Positive identities are viewed as a protective resource that gives direction, meaning and constancy to everyday life, even during time of ethnic identity confusion and change. In contrast, negative personal identities are viewed as products of social, cultural and economic barriers that may increase stress and vulnerability to maladaptive outcomes. We use self-schema theory to conceptualize characteristics of the total array of personal identities. Self-schemas are knowledge structures about the self in specific behavioral domains that are stored in long-term memory (Lieberman, 2003 and Markus, 1977). Based on studies demonstrating the functional properties of self-schemas (Catrambone & Markus, 1987, Estabrooks & Courneya, 1997, Froming et al., 1998, Kendzierski & Sheffield, 2000, Lips, 1995 and Markus et al., 1987), and their organization in memory (Nowak, Vallacher, Tesser, & Borkowski, 2000) we hypothesize that Mexican American women who have few positive self-schemas, many negative self-schemas, and high interrelatedness among their self-schemas will lack the diverse array of interests, commitments, and strategies necessary to facilitate meaningful behaviors in a diverse array of domains. Simultaneously, they will be more likely to experience negative affects, behavioral avoidance and inhibitions that stem from negative self-schemas (Lips, 1995). Together these properties of the self-concept will increase vulnerability to cultural norms related to body weight and will contribute to the development of a fat self-schema, which in turn, will predict ED attitudes and behaviors.
نتیجه گیری انگلیسی
This study lends initial support for the theoretical view that characteristics of the array of personal identities are associated with susceptibility to body weight cultural norms and ED attitudes and behaviors in young adult women of Mexican origin. Most importantly, results suggest that individual differences in the array of positive and negative self-schemas are predictive of the availability of an elaborated definition of the self as fat and lend credibility to the hypothesis that interventions to influence the development of more positive and fewer negative self-schemas may be an important approach to preventing development of a fat self-definition and the associated ED attitudes and behaviors in this population.