واسطه های بالقوه اختلال استرس پس از سانحه در شاهدان عینی کودک به خشونت خانگی
|کد مقاله||سال انتشار||مقاله انگلیسی||ترجمه فارسی||تعداد کلمات|
|36062||1998||12 صفحه PDF||سفارش دهید||6934 کلمه|
Publisher : Elsevier - Science Direct (الزویر - ساینس دایرکت)
Journal : Child Abuse & Neglect, Volume 22, Issue 4, April 1998, Pages 319–330
By definition PTSD is an anxiety disorder caused by overwhelming traumatic stress (APA 1995). Symptom criteria for PTSD is grouped into three broad categories; re-experiencing the trauma, persistent avoidance of trauma-related stimuli or psychological numbing, and symptoms of increased arousal not present before the trauma. Duration of symptoms must be of at least 1 month. Frequently found patterns of symptoms of PTSD in children include regression to earlier developmental stages, nightmares that may generalize into less specific monster nightmares, post-traumatic play in which children re-enact the trauma, daydreaming and difficulties concentrating frequently associated with academic under-achievement (APA 1995; Kinzie et al. 1989). Separation anxieties, anxious attachment behaviors, and physical symptoms such as stomachaches and headaches are also commonly reported symptoms of PTSD in children (Eth and Pynoos 1985a). Childhood PTSD has been linked to traumatic stressors such as sexual abuse (Goodwin 1985; McLeer et al. 1988), physical abuse (Doyle and Bauer 1989; Saigh 1987), and man-made and natural catastrophes (Galante and Foa 1987; Martini et al. 1990; Sugar 1989).