توسعه یک سیستم طبقه بندی کیفیت لحیم کاری با استفاده از روش داده کاوی ترکیبی
|کد مقاله||سال انتشار||مقاله انگلیسی||ترجمه فارسی||تعداد کلمات|
|21446||2012||12 صفحه PDF||سفارش دهید||محاسبه نشده|
Publisher : Elsevier - Science Direct (الزویر - ساینس دایرکت)
Journal : Expert Systems with Applications, Volume 39, Issue 5, April 2012, Pages 5727–5738
Soldering failures lead to considerable manufacturing costs in the electronics assembly industry. Soldering problems can be caused by improper parameter settings during paste stencil printing, component placement, the solder reflow process or combinations thereof in surface mount assembly (SMA). Data mining has emerged as one of the most dynamic fields in processing large manufacturing databases and process knowledge extraction. In this study, the integration of a probabilistic network of the SMA line and a hybrid data mining approach is employed to identify soldering defect patterns, classify soldering quality, and predict new instances according to significant process inputs. The hybrid data mining approach uses a two-stage clustering method that utilizes the self-organizing map (SOM) to derive the preliminary number of clusters and their centroids from the statistical process control (SPC) database, followed by the use of K-means to precisely classify instances into definite classes of soldering quality. The See5 induction system is then applied to induce the decision tree and ruleset to elucidate associations among the defect patterns, process parameters, and assembly yield. Finally, visual C++ programming codes are implemented for both production rule retrieval and graphical user interface establishment. The effectiveness of the proposed classifier is illustrated through a real-world application to resolve practical manufacturing problems.
1.1. Surface mount assembly In the electronics assembly industry, printed circuit board (PCB) assembly is an essential part of the manufacturing process, in which surface mount technology (SMT) is an important method used to directly attach the surface mounted components (SMCs) onto the pads of the PCB. SMT assembly consists of three consecutive process steps: solder paste stencil printing, component placement, and solder reflow. In surface mount assembly (SMA), the solder paste is first deposited onto the solder pads of the PCB through stencil printing application, as illustrated in Fig. 1(a) and (b). After this, the pasted boards are mounted with SMCs using a chip placer as depicted in Fig. 1(c). The boards are then conveyed into a reflow oven to form strong electronic connections or solder joints without altering the initial mechanical and electronic characteristics (Lee, 1999), as illustrated in Fig. 1(d). Finally, the assembled boards are visually inspected or tested using an automated optics inspection (AOI) system to identify soldering defects. If soldering failures occur, the defective boards are sent to rework stations for defect correction.A stainless-steel stencil with designated apertures is used in stencil printing application to transfer solder paste onto a substrate. A squeegee is moved along the stencil surface by air pressure, forcing solder paste through the apertures in the stencil. The stencil is released after the printing iteration, leaving the desired amount of solder paste on the solder pads of the PCB (see Fig. 1(a) and 1(b)). According to industrial reports, 50% to 70% of the total soldering defects are related to the stencil printing process. The printability is influenced by several factors including the stencil design, the constituents of the solder paste, product configuration, and the stencil printer and its printing parameters (Barajas et al., 2008 and Pan et al., 2004). Any paste printing faults may result in inferior quality in downstream process steps. For example, incomplete prints may cause a component to be lost during the component placement step or in the formation of insufficient solder joints after solder reflowing. Paste bridges on the other hand may lead to short circuits after soldering. Sometimes a component may not be placed evenly which increases the chances of solder bridge formation between the solder joints. A chip placer is an automated robotic system dedicated to mounting different types of SMCs onto the PCBs at programmed locations. A state-of-the-art chip shooter usually provides high placement accuracy, high throughput, and programmable controls. In practice, the precision of placement is identified by the measurements of the X-offset and Y-offset of the components placed on the boards, as shown in Fig. 2, defined by the distance between the two center points of the component lead and land pads in both the X and Y directions. Since the scale of significance varies from component to component, the shifting placement is normalized as a fractional number between 0 and 10 (representing the lowest to highest sifting rates) according to IPC standard ( IPC-A-610D, 2004).The solder reflow process is one of the key determinants of product yield (Prasad, 2002). A reflow thermal profile is indicated by a time–temperature graph used to control the heating cycle while the board is reflowed in the oven, as shown in Fig. 3. Both the board and its components are warmed up in the preheating zone, where the board temperature quickly rises from room temperature to about 150 °C. An increase in temperature to 180 °C activates the flux and welts the metallic surfaces of the solder pads and component leads in the soaking zone. In the reflow zone, the solder particles are melted and liquefied. Finally, strong solder joints between component leads and solder pads are formed in the cooling zone. The heating parameter settings such as working mode of the reflow oven, conveyer speed, solder paste ingredients, and number of components assembled can affect the acceptance of a thermal profile. The use of an inadequate thermal profile can generate numerous soldering failures, for example, solder balling, tombstoning, solder voiding, solder bridging, and incomplete solder joints (Lee, 1999 and Tsai, 2008).Defective products lead to an additional 30% to 50% increase in the manufacturing costs due to the additional testing and reworking expenses (Amir, 1994). Therefore, ascertaining the soldering quality is a major issue in the electronics assembly industry. This is particularly evident in the production of telecommunication products due to the reduced size of the devices, extended board complexity, and increased product functionality. In practice, a soldering failure distribution chart is usually produced to trace the source of soldering defects. A case study is carried out using an anonymous American electronics manufacturer in Taiwan, referred to as company V hereafter, that produces many automated transaction portfolios, including smartcard readers, credit card readers and electronic transaction security systems. This company has a global market share exceeding 50%. The soldering failure distribution chart generated by company V is illustrated in Fig. 4. In summary, stencil printing accounts for 53% of soldering defects, while roughly 17% of the process faults originate from component placement. The other failure sources (30%) are improper reflow soldering and flaws with the raw materials. The map depicts whether failures come from either the stencil printing application, component placement or solder reflow step clearly. However, evidence is absent to identify the source (s) of soldering defects, and how they occur in the steps of the fabrication process is still unknown. Thus, in the real world, engineers improve soldering quality based on experience, by trial-and-error. Yet, the traditional method (i.e., experimental testing) is to examine and optimize a single process step rather than viewing the overall SMA. 1.2. Probabilistic network It is naturally more efficient and cost-effective if soldering problems can be detected earlier on in the manufacturing process however, in many cases, soldering failures might be detected only at the end of the process failure chain, which can lead to considerable quality and productivity loss. It should be remembered that process parameters are correlated not only within the same process step but also among different ones (Hwang, 1992). Based on this concept, soldering defects can be traced through a probabilistic network that defines the cause-and-effect relationship between parameters, measurements associates with the SMT process steps, and yield (Kamen et al., 2000). The probabilistic network for a SMT assembly line is shown in Fig. 5. The upper nodes indicate the parameter settings, whereas the lower nodes represent the measures of stencil printing quality, placement accuracy, solder reflowing performance and production yield. The arrows indicate the relationships between upstream and downstream SMT process step (s). Possible soldering defects generated from the process failure chain are shown in Table 1. For example, the use of an inappropriate set of printing parameters could result in a superabundant deposition of soldering paste. This fault could disturb placement accuracy which then significantly affects the solderability.The balance of this paper is constructed as follows. In Section 2, we discuss the background concerned with the improvement of soldering quality and data mining approaches used in the electronics packaging. The clustering and decision tree algorithms are reviewed in Section 3. Section 4 describes the research methodology for developing the proposed classifier and the empirical evaluation results. In the last section conclusions are provided.
نتیجه گیری انگلیسی
SMT is the primary method used to fabricate many types of modern 3C products in the electronics assembly industry. Soldering quality is becoming an increasingly important factor towards building more reliable products as the functional scope of these products becomes more diversified and sophisticated. The soldering problems can be attributed to individual SMT process stage or a combination of the three consecutive process steps. In many cases, soldering defects might be detected only at the end of the process failure chain which leads to significant loss of productivity and quality. In practice, the electronics industry is heavily reliant on the acquisition of field experience to improve soldering quality. Traditional methods implemented for SMT process improvement are usually based on data-driven analysis through experimental testing or modeling. Most of these studies do not simultaneously consider those parameters that carry influence across all three steps of the SMT process despite a proportional improvement being considered significant. At the same time, there is a substantial amount of data collected regarding to the assembly yield from the SMT production lines and failure contributors. However, effective techniques for the analysis of the process factors and assembly yield are scarce. In this work, we integrated the probabilistic network of the SMA line and a hybrid data mining approach to identify the soldering defect patterns and classify soldering quality, according to the significant process inputs. A GUI soldering quality classifier system was established to retrieve the association between process factors and the assembly yield. This classifier has a relatively complex structure of decisions that can reliably predict the soldering quality and enables an estimation of the new process instance. Consequently, the average prediction accuracy of the proposed classifier for all test cases exceeded 93%. The classifier can be further incorporated into an in-line process control system or CIM system for the purpose of continuous quality improvement and can serve as educational material for training engineers to expedite problem-solving and troubleshooting cycles and acquire implicit process knowledge.