پیش بینی و نتایج رفتار جستجوی شغل: اثرات تعدیل جنسیت و وضعیت خانواده
|کد مقاله||سال انتشار||مقاله انگلیسی||ترجمه فارسی||تعداد کلمات|
|26558||2005||20 صفحه PDF||سفارش دهید||9171 کلمه|
Publisher : Elsevier - Science Direct (الزویر - ساینس دایرکت)
Journal : Journal of Vocational Behavior, Volume 67, Issue 2, October 2005, Pages 133–152
This study explored differences in the antecedents and consequences of job search behavior depending on gender and family situation in a large, nationwide sample of the Dutch population. Using Ajzen’s (1991) theory of planned behavior (TPB), we found no gender differences in the antecedents of job seeking. However, family situation did affect the relations in the TPB, such that personal attitude was a slightly weaker, and perceived social pressure a stronger predictor of job seeking for individuals with families than for singles. Concerning the consequences, job search behavior significantly predicted the chances of finding (new) employment, but not job satisfaction in the new job and the level of agreement between the obtained and wanted job.
In many Western countries persistent gender differences exist in the context of employment. Labor force participation among women is substantially lower than among men in both Europe (Eurostat, 2002) and the United States (Bureau of Labor Statistics, 2002). Moreover, in most European countries the unemployment levels among women continue to be higher than among men (Eurostat, 2002). Furthermore, research has often found that women are employed in a narrow range of female-dominated jobs that are generally worse in terms of pay and opportunities for training and advancement than non-female-dominated jobs (Drentea, 1998, Mau and Kopischke, 2001 and Mencken and Winfield, 2000). Also in The Netherlands some evident employment-related differences exist between men and women. Unemployment levels among women, for example, are about twice as high as among men (4.7% compared to 2.5%), and the labor force participation is lower among women than among men (53.4% compared to 77.1%; Statistics Netherlands, 2002). Furthermore, the majority of employed women in The Netherlands have part-time jobs, compared to only a small minority of the employed men (Portegijs, Boelens, & Keuzenkamp, 2002). One factor that may affect these employment-related differences between men and women is individual job search behavior. Previous research has indicated that job search behavior is an important predictor of finding employment (Kanfer, Wanberg, & Kantrowitz, 2001) and employment quality (Saks and Ashforth, 2002 and Werbel, 2000). With regard to the gender differences in employment patterns, the question arises whether the relation of job search behavior with finding employment and employment quality is similar for men and women. Most studies on gender and job seeking have focused on gender differences in the use of formal versus informal job seeking strategies (Huffman and Torres, 2001 and Straits, 1998), and on the effects of using formal versus informal search strategies on employment outcomes such as earnings in the obtained job and gender typicality of the obtained job (Drentea, 1998, Huffman and Torres, 2001, Leicht and Marx, 1997 and Mencken and Winfield, 2000). The first purpose of the current study was to investigate gender differences in the relation of job search behavior in a more general form with a broader range of employment outcomes, including job attainment and job satisfaction. The second purpose related to gender differences in the predictors of job search behavior. Several studies have investigated the predictors of job search behavior in general. Kanfer et al.’s (2001) meta-analysis showed that gender has only a small direct effect on job search behavior (rcorrected = .05), indicating that men were more likely to engage in job seeking than women. A question that remains, relates to the extent to which the relations of the various predictors with job seeking are similar for men and women. Gender differences not only exist in the context of paid employment but also in relation to household tasks and care. According to traditional gender roles, men have paid jobs while women engage in domestic activities (Eagly, 1987). These roles still persist today, for example, Bianchi, Milkie, Sayer, and Robinson (2000) reported that married women in the United States spend almost twice the amount of time on housework as compared to married men. Furthermore, women in The Netherlands spend over twice as much time on domestic activities (e.g., childrearing) as compared to men (Portegijs et al., 2002). It is likely, however, that findings like these depend on the particular family situation. We therefore suggest that in addition to gender, family situation is important with regard to job seeking and its predictors and outcomes. Thus, the present study extends the existing literature by investigating the moderating effects of both gender and family situation on (a) the relation of job search behavior with its predictors, and (b) the relation of job search behavior with job search outcomes. In the following, we first present the general research model that was used in the current study. Second, we discuss the possible moderating effects of gender and family situation.
نتیجه گیری انگلیسی
This study examined the predictors and outcomes of job search in a sample that is considered a good representation of the entire Dutch population. Unlike previous research we did not specifically focus on either employed job seekers or unemployed job seekers or new entrants at the labor market; our sample included individuals from all of these groups. On the one hand this may limit the comparability of our results to previous studies focusing on those specific groups. On the other hand, our study extends the literature by showing that results found in previous research can be generalized to a sample composed of individuals with a broad variety of educational, vocational, and geographical backgrounds. A second limitation pertains to the use of direct global measures for personal job search attitude and perceived social pressure, instead of the more comprehensive belief-based measures (Ajzen, 1991). Although previous research showed that global measures are valid predictors of job seeking behaviors (e.g., Caska, 1998 and Vinokur and Caplan, 1987), the lack of support regarding the moderating role of gender in the relation of job search intention with its predictors, might relate to the type of measures used. Although, the global attitudes and global perceptions of pressure did not differ between men and women, the salient beliefs underlying these attitudes and perceptions might differ between men and women. Future research should therefore study gender differences in this context using both global and belief-based measures of the TPB-variables. A third limitation of the present study relates to the reliance on self-report measures. Common method variance might therefore be a concern. We do believe, however, that the use of an extensive index to measure job search intention and behavior, including both preparatory and active job search activities (Blau, 1994), and the use of a two-wave longitudinal design might have attenuated this concern. Furthermore, measures such as family situation and job attainment, although assessed through self-report, are objective in nature (Wanberg, Watt, & Rumsey, 1996). In conclusion, previous research and national statistics often report that persistent gender differences exist in the context of employment. Job search behavior was investigated as a possible factor that may influence these employment-related gender differences. However, the current study found little evidence for the presence of gender differences in the relations of job search behavior with its predictors and outcomes. In contrast, some evidence was found for differences depending on family situation in the predictors of job seeking.