سابقه پژوهش قبول واقعیت مواد غذایی در ارتش ایالات متحده
|کد مقاله||سال انتشار||مقاله انگلیسی||ترجمه فارسی||تعداد کلمات|
|38516||2003||18 صفحه PDF||سفارش دهید||14915 کلمه|
Publisher : Elsevier - Science Direct (الزویر - ساینس دایرکت)
Journal : Appetite, Volume 40, Issue 3, 1 June 2003, Pages 199–216
Abstract The history of food acceptance research by the US Army in Chicago and Natick is reviewed. The review covers the staff of the two research centers, the research programs, and the significant accomplishments of the Army laboratories from the 1940s to the present. Accomplishments begin with the development of the nine-point hedonic scale, and the development of the first Food Acceptance Laboratory. Further accomplishments include studies of sensory psychophysics, food preferences, food choice and food intake. The laboratories designed methods and conducted research on the role of consumer variables in the acceptance of food products and food service systems. Recent work has focused on new scaling approaches, the role of contextual factors and the importance of product expectations. Throughout the period of the review, the Army research has examined the relationship of laboratory acceptance to field acceptance, and the relationship of acceptance to intake.
Introduction We have undertaken a review of the history of food acceptance research in the US Army and its impact on food acceptance research in general for a number of reasons. First, the two of us span over 50 years of working for and with the Army laboratories which originated the concept of food acceptance, and which have continued to research, develop and utilize food acceptance methods and theory. Howard Schutz worked in Chicago from 1951 to 1957; Herbert Meiselman worked at Natick from 1969 to the present. In addition, Howard Schutz worked as a contractor with Natick in the 1970s, and has worked as a summer Visiting Scientist at Natick from 1993 to the present. We will present the review chronologically, but not year-by-year. The work was not evenly distributed over this period of time, and during some years relatively less was accomplished. Also, there was a major disruption when the laboratory moved from Chicago to Natick, and we can report relatively little from this period. This review will cover the first 56 years of food acceptance research by the US Army. However, we cannot be exhaustive because literally hundreds of people have worked at the Quartermaster Food and Container Institute (QMFCI) in Chicago and then the US Army Natick Laboratories in Natick. These people conducted hundreds of research projects and produced thousands of papers and reports. We will include representative papers and summary reports. Both Chicago and Natick had many employees working on a broad range of research and engineering programs. The Chicago laboratory was the QMFCI, and, therefore, was entirely oriented around food. Natick is an equipment laboratory that produces individual equipment for soldiers and other service personnel, and food is one of the research and development programs.
نتیجه گیری انگلیسی
. Conclusion The US Army, first at the QMFCI in Chicago, and later at the Natick Laboratories in Massachusetts have contributed greatly to the development and growth of the study and evaluation of food acceptance. Over the second half of the 20th century, a large number of scientists and technologists working in Chicago or Natick have developed techniques for the measurement of food acceptance and its controlling variables. They have developed techniques for the evaluation of acceptability in both laboratory and field settings. They have published hundreds, perhaps thousands, of papers on their studies, because their work is not proprietary as is the case in industry. The Chicago and Natick scientists tended to work in interdisciplinary teams, which included academic collaborators working under contract and visiting scientists from other institutions and sometimes from other countries. The team-work had an atmosphere that reflected a great deal of comraderie and a sense of excitement and contribution to both the theoretical and practical problems in food acceptance. The people who worked and trained at these two laboratories can be found in academia and industry all over the United States. The Visiting Scientists can be found all over the United States, and in many leading research institutes around the world. While other centers of excellence in food acceptance research have come and gone, the role of the US Army in food acceptance research has continued uninterrupted since the 1940s. Centers of excellence have periodically developed in Europe, while expertise in the US has mainly centered within academic departments where the investigators work independently. In both Chicago and Natick there was a nurturing of contacts and ties with government entities, such as the National Academy of Sciences, and with academia. In both Chicago and Natick there were ties to industry and to the market research community. Chicago and Natick worked on a number of continuing themes: basic human sensory processes, basic and applied sensory evaluation methods, laboratory testing and field testing, human food habits and their controlling variables, food preferences and their relation to other food behaviors, food attitudes, food habits such as monotony and satiety, product development, and the relationship of diet to performance. While it is very risky to attempt to select the major technological and methodological achievements from Chicago and Natick, we have decided to accept the risk and put forth our opinions, which have been worked out with our colleagues at Natick. The List of Technological/Methodological Achievements (Table 4) includes 16 topics beginning with the hedonic scale, continuing through psychophysical topics, food habits topics, and various measurement topics. While other people might add or subtract from this list, we hope that it conveys the broad and continuing developments coming from Chicago and Natick. Table 4. Technological/methodological achievements in Army acceptance research 1. Development and validation of nine-point hedonic scale 2. Development of one of the first sensory evaluation laboratories in the 1940s and the first laboratory devoted to ‘Food Acceptance’ 3. Psychophysical studies of taste stimuli, taste adaptation, and taste mixtures using direct scaling, and taste mechanisms using taste modifiers, single papillae, etc. 4. Psychophysical studies of smell, and smell mixtures using direct scaling 5. Psychophysical studies of texture and relationship to instrumental measures 6. Direct scaling of hedonic aspects of food stimuli and their relationship to sensory attributes 7. Scaling of food preferences, food compatibility, boredom, menu planning 8. Long term study of food preferences among military personnel 9. Development of methodology for evaluating foods (rations) in the field including acceptance and intake; observation of low consumption along with stable acceptance 10. Introduced consumer research, including food acceptance, as part of studies of institutional (military) food service systems 11. Sensory and consumer studies on acceptance of novel/irradiated foods, including the role of food habits and attitudes such as monotony, variety and neophobia 12. Application of expectation theory to food acceptance 13. Studies of environmental/contextual variables and their impact on choice, intake and acceptance 14. Application of food sensory evaluation to other products (clothing comfort) 15. Exploration of the relationship between laboratory and field data, between laboratory acceptance and field acceptance, and in general, the effects of eating location on choice and acceptance 16. Exploration of the relationship of acceptance to intake Table options Chicago and Natick were unlike any other laboratories conducting research on food acceptability. Their unique combination of staff, resources, and mission permitted them to survive and prosper, and to continuously contribute to the field of food acceptance for over one half century. At the beginning of the 21st century, the future is still promising.