جهانی شدن و محیط زیست: اثرات طولانی مدت فن آوری بر تقسیم بین المللی کار و تقاضای انرژی
|کد مقاله||سال انتشار||مقاله انگلیسی||ترجمه فارسی||تعداد کلمات|
|19266||2005||26 صفحه PDF||سفارش دهید||12072 کلمه|
Publisher : Elsevier - Science Direct (الزویر - ساینس دایرکت)
Journal : Futures, Volume 37, Issue 6, August 2005, Pages 521–546
This paper examines the effect of the structural changes arising from the globalisation of production and innovation and from technological changes on the environment. Drawing on theories of international production from international business and innovation, we assess the impact of long-term technological change and changes in international production on the international division of labour and energy demand. We select two industrial sectors with different technological characteristics (the textile, clothing and footwear sector and the chemical sector). We examine the effects of the globalisation of production and of technological change on these two sectors on the level of industrial production and resource intensity in different regions and countries over the last 30 years. We speculate on the impact of globalisation of production and innovation in future pervasive technologies—information technology, biotechnology and nano-technology. The implications of these developments on industrial greenhouse gases emissions are assessed.
There is some agreement that we have entered into a new, more complex form of internationalisation—globalisation. Globalisation involves functional integration between internationally dispersed economic activities  and . In this process, the operation of multinational corporations is the most important force creating international changes in the nature and location of economic activity as well as a new international division of labour. The strategies and operations of multinationals, and the resulting map of international production, trade and investment are much influenced by technological change. The effects of technology on the changing patterns of international production, trade and investment have important implications for the environment. Globalisation has also meant that there is an increasing recognition that the impact of apparently ‘local’ issues can be global. Climate change from global warming, caused by the industrial countries' huge use of fossil fuels, leading to increased concentration of greenhouse gases (CO2) is one such impact. Also, environmental policy and regulation at a national level have created differential cost structures and have become an important factor influencing international trade and investment .