نقش دانش ضمنی در فرایند نوآوری شرکت های با فن آوری کوچک
|کد مقاله||سال انتشار||مقاله انگلیسی||ترجمه فارسی||تعداد کلمات|
|21578||2002||8 صفحه PDF||سفارش دهید||4160 کلمه|
Publisher : Elsevier - Science Direct (الزویر - ساینس دایرکت)
Journal : International Journal of Production Economics, Volume 80, Issue 1, November 2002, Pages 57–64
This paper reports on a conceptual analysis of the role of tacit knowledge in innovation processes. The presentation will focus on foundations of tacit knowledge, how tacit knowledge is acquired and transferred, and how it is utilised in the innovation functions of small technology companies. The study hints that tacit knowledge can play an important role in the initial stages of the innovation processes of small technology enterprises.
Until the 1960s innovation was treated as an unexplained variance in the performance of a technology company. Today tacit knowledge, as an element within technological innovation, has been seen similarly. Interest in tacit knowledge has, however, grown as awareness has increased that the contribution of technological innovation to growth and economic performance is not simply associated with embodied technologies, but is also dependent on disembodied, intangible assets and working practices. (cf. Charles and Howells, 1992). With regard to innovation function, it is argued that small technology companies have some advantages over larger technology companies. It is said that small technology enterprises can many times develop more products than larger technology companies with same amount of money. If this is true, is it then possible to explain these benefits partly in terms of the concept ‘tacit knowledge’? The goal of this paper is to illustrate the role of tacit knowledge in innovation processes. Therefore, at the beginning of the following discussion we will describe the views of various researchers on tacit knowledge and its dissemination in technology companies. After that we will analyse a typical innovation process while trying to determine what role tacit knowledge plays in the different phases of the innovation process. At the end of the paper we draw a conclusion as to what the role of tacit knowledge utilisation in innovation processes of small technology companies is.
نتیجه گیری انگلیسی
On the basis of the analysis above we can conclude that tacit knowledge can play an important role in the innovation processes of small technology companies. This is especially the case when consideration is focused on the beginning of the innovation process, namely on invention and product development. In these phases of innovation non-bureaucratic organisation structure, informal interaction between the people involved, and a coaching type of leadership style, which are all often typical of small technology companies, are good facilitators for tacit knowledge utilisation. However, the crucial point is not the amount of tacit knowledge owned by the people involved, but the utilisation of it. The benefits, which small technology companies derive from the tacit knowledge, are based on the idea that they utilise it better than larger companies. Another implication would seem to be that the innovation process discussed above, can be facilitated by engaging technology companies and their customers in interactive learning and effective sharing of tacit knowledge.