افسار مصرف کنندگان سازمان ملل متحد: یک مطالعه تجربی سه بازار از پذیرش بازار تلفن همراه مصرف کنندگان
|کد مقاله||سال انتشار||مقاله انگلیسی||ترجمه فارسی||تعداد کلمات|
|23601||2013||9 صفحه PDF||سفارش دهید||7660 کلمه|
Publisher : Elsevier - Science Direct (الزویر - ساینس دایرکت)
Journal : Journal of Business Research, Volume 66, Issue 12, December 2013, Pages 2536–2544
This study examines factors influencing consumers' acceptance of mobile marketing across three influential markets, namely U.S., China, and Europe. The authors develop an integrative conceptual model on consumers' attitudes and behaviors toward mobile marketing. The authors incorporate three individual-level characteristics, namely personal attachment, innovativeness, and risk avoidance and investigate how permission-based acceptance influences the relationship between consumers' attitude and mobile marketing activity. Focusing on Generation Y consumers, the model is empirically tested with data from U.S., China, and Europe. The findings illustrate several cross-market differences and similarities regarding the relationships between individual-level characteristics, attitude, and mobile marketing activity. Research and managerial implications of these findings are discussed.
New developments in mobile technologies (such as latest generation smartphones and tablets) have begun to turn the mobile device into an innovative, powerful platform with which to engage consumers (Shankar and Malthouse, 2007 and Shankar et al., 2010). Indeed, the significant growth in the worldwide penetration of mobile phones has fueled the growth of mobile marketing spending and focused marketers' attention toward building and promoting brand presence on mobile devices, creating a marketing platform referred to as “brand in the hand” (Sultan & Rohm, 2005). In this study, we define mobile marketing as a set of programs and practices that firms employ to communicate and engage, in an interactive manner, with consumers and enable them to access information, download content, or purchase products on mobile devices (MMA, 2008). This definition underscores the potential for companies to conduct branding, marketing communications, and other mobile activities specific to the consumer's current context, time, and location. Scholars have examined the uniqueness of the mobile marketing platform with respect to traditional, and even fixed-Internet, media along two dimensions: (1) that it involves a high degree of interactivity, and (2) that its marketing content and messages can be based on one's location (e.g., Bauer et al., 2005 and Rohm and Sultan, 2005Shankar et al., 2010). Past research also suggests firms can deliver advertising and other location-based promotions to consumers, in effect rendering the marketing content contextually valuable to consumers (Pura, 2005). A case in point is Adidas' use of quick-response codes in its innovative mobile “window shopping” platform (Gigaom, 2012). While a growing body of research has examined factors influencing mobile marketing acceptance among consumers, relatively fewer studies examine and compare consumer acceptance across both developed and emerging markets (Peng and Spencer, 2006, Shankar et al., 2010 and Xu et al., 2009). Therefore, our key research question is what factors influence youth consumers' acceptance of mobile marketing practices across three influential global markets. We have purposely chosen youth consumers as our research focus since, to these “digital natives” (Prensky, 2005), the mobile platform has overtaken the fixed Internet as the primary form of communication and access to content. Simply put, these individuals represent the future for firms seeking to engage with consumers in the mobile space. This study contributes to the marketing literature in four ways. First, although there is a growing body of research examining consumer acceptance of mobile marketing (e.g., Bauer et al., 2005), these studies do not specifically explain drivers of mobile marketing attitude, nor do they incorporate mobile marketing activity as an ultimate dependent variable. We extend past research by developing and empirically testing an integrative conceptual framework on the formation of consumers' attitude toward mobile marketing, by studying the impact of attitude on behavior, and by examining the conditions shaping the strength of the attitude–behavior relationship in the mobile marketing domain. Second, our approach goes beyond current conceptualizations of acceptance models (primarily the TAM and innovation diffusion models) to unite technology-based factors with consumer characteristics central to mobile marketing in explaining consumer attitudes, as well as consumers' subsequent acceptance of and participation in mobile marketing activities. More importantly, we examine the moderating roles of consumer characteristics such as personal attachment (to the mobile device), innovativeness, and risk avoidance on the effects of technology factors (e.g., usefulness perceptions) on attitude toward mobile marketing. Mobile carriers, marketers, and policy makers are confronted with numerous obstacles, including the perception of mobile marketing communications as intrusive, annoying, and posing a threat to personal privacy. Therefore, while many academic studies have noted the challenges facing mobile, location-based marketing practices, including feelings of intrusiveness as well as trust and privacy concerns among consumers (e.g., Grant & O'Donohoe, 2007), the global youth generation has readily embraced mobile devices and is more demanding than previous generations in terms of their expectations for interactions with brands involving the mobile experience (cf. Meyer, Michael, & Nettesheim, 2008). Our expanded conceptual model, moving beyond the TAM theory, seeks to address these unique consumer issues surrounding mobile marketing. Third, we investigate the role of permission as it relates to consumers' acceptance of firms' mobile marketing efforts and extend the literature by examining the role of permission-based acceptance on mobile marketing activities among the youth segment. Whereas Jayawardhena, Kuckertz, Karjaluoto, and Kautonen (2009) examined antecedents to consumers' willingness to participate in permission-based mobile marketing, their model did not include mobile marketing activities as an ultimate dependent variable. Fourth, much of the prior work on consumer acceptance of mobile marketing practices has focused on single markets (e.g., Barwise and Strong, 2002, Tsang et al., 2004 and Zhang and Mao, 2008), and few studies have compared cross-market differences related to consumers' acceptance of mobile marketing acceptance (Ngai and Gunasekaran, 2007 and Sultan et al., 2009). Accordingly, our study of mobile, location-based marketing is focused on the following three markets: U.S., China, and Western Europe, across which markets technology adoption seems to be converging. The number of smartphone users in China, concurrent with the launch of 3G mobile data services, reached almost 200 million by the end of 2011 (Ablott, 2011). And the potential for continued growth in highly populated yet still developing markets such as China (Ericsson.com, 2010) is significant. In Europe, mobile phone penetration now exceeds 100% (averaging more than one mobile phone per person) in several countries including Germany and Italy. In turn, mobile device penetration in the U.S. has surpassed 90%, smartphone penetration is approaching 50%, and stiff competition in industries ranging from consumer products to financial services is leading domestic brands to embrace new and innovative forms of digital marketing communications in order to reach consumers (Nielsen Research, 2010). Yet, with respect to areas such as online privacy, there are apparent cultural differences (Daley, 2011). For instance, European laws and public policy toward protection of personal information online are significantly stricter than it is in markets such as the U.S. By nature of our proposed conceptual model and in light of the trend toward globalization of consumer cultures and influences (Khanh and Hau 2007), we examine cross-market differences and similarities in consumer acceptance with respect to mobile marketing practices. The objective of our study, however, is not to focus on cultural characteristics, but rather to examine antecedents to acceptance and marketing-related activity related to mobile marketing and how the relationships among these antecedents differ across three global markets. In the next section, we review the extant literature and present our conceptual model of mobile marketing acceptance. We then detail our research methodology and model analysis. Finally, we discuss the study results, implications for theory and practice, study limitations, and directions for future research.
نتیجه گیری انگلیسی
In this study, we investigate the effects of technology attributes (related to mobile marketing programs and functions) and individual characteristics (including innovativeness, attachment, and risk avoidance) on consumers' attitudes toward mobile marketing and self-reported mobile marketing activity among young consumers in the U.S., China, and Western Europe. Interestingly, we found that results from the U.S., China, and Western Europe samples were largely similar. The seven proposed main effects were all supported in the China and Western Europe samples and all but one (the influence of risk avoidance on attitude) were supported in the U.S. sample. 5.1. Theoretical implications Taking into account past research examining cultural differences along the dimensions of uncertainty avoidance and collectivism (Hofstede 1980), these findings indicate cross-market similarities and differences in consumer responses to mobile marketing programs. On the one hand, the Gen Y respondents in these three markets show surprising similarities regarding the relationships among technology acceptance factors, individual characteristics, attitudes toward and acceptance of mobile marketing, and related mobile marketing activity. Given the trend of a global Internet culture and the extent to which markets are becoming aligned with respect to technological influences (Jenkins, 2006 and Khanh and Hau, 2007), our findings are suggestive of how global mobile marketing strategies might evolve in the near future. On the other hand, our study also demonstrates key differences in the acceptance behaviors of consumers across these three markets. As expected, consumer attitudes toward mobile marketing were influenced by perceived usefulness, personal attachment, and innovativeness in all three markets. However, in the China and Western Europe samples, attitude was further reduced by consumers' risk avoidance. Conversely, for the U.S. sample, risk avoidance had a negligible impact on attitude toward mobile marketing. From a theoretical perspective, these differences suggest the need for further research to examine the extent to which the role of personal risk and privacy concern on consumer acceptance of emerging digital communications and marketing platforms may differ depending on cultural characteristics (such as collectivism and uncertainty avoidance) and market conditions. Based on well-publicized concerns related to online consumer privacy and data protection, including recent press coverage of online marketers' ability to track consumers' virtual as well as physical movements (Cohen, 2011), we had proposed that consumers' desire to avoid risk related to companies' mobile marketing efforts would significantly affect attitudes toward mobile advertising and promotions across all three markets. Therefore, these results (albeit expected in markets such as Western Europe that are known for strict data and consumer privacy regulations and laws) were surprising related to the U.S. sample. This finding seems contrary to the explanation that in individual-oriented societies such as the U.S., risk avoidance related to the mobile platform may have a stronger impact on attitude, whereas in Asian societies such as China defined by higher degrees of collectivism, and where individual well-being is subsumed within a system of collective welfare, the relationship between risk avoidance and activities such as accessing content in the mobile setting may be heightened by communal, rather than individual, concerns. One explanation for the unexpected finding about the U.S. sample may be that younger consumers in media intensive markets such as the U.S. increasingly perceive the line between commercial advertising and “real life” as blurred (witness the recent popularity of reality television programming and rise of product placement advertising) and they are becoming less risk averse, or more immune, to the intrusion of commercial content in their daily lives, even when delivered on their mobile phones. Our research also adds support to past studies (e.g., Sultan et al., 2009 and Zhang and Mao, 2008) illustrating the varying roles of personal attachment to mobile devices – evident in all three samples – as an antecedent factor directly influencing attitudes toward mobile marketing. The similar findings with regard to attachment suggest that young consumers in emerging markets in Asia such as China view their mobile phones as a reflection of the self and a status-based accessory with which to convey personal identity, similar to the role of other fashion items. In turn, personal attachment may influence mobile marketing activity in the form of accessing and sharing content. This finding is important to future theory development in that it illustrates the role of social acceptance within certain consumer groups as an indicator of technology acceptance and usage, especially among Asian societies. Our findings also show the role of consumers' attitudes toward mobile marketing on permission-based acceptance. Whereas past research (e.g., Jayawardhena et al., 2009) has investigated permission-based mobile marketing and its antecedents, we extend the current literature to include the moderating effect of permission-based acceptance on the effect of attitude on behavior in the mobile marketing domain. Our findings show that permission-based mobile marketing acceptance significantly enhances the influence of attitude on mobile marketing activity in all three markets. Industry organizations such as the Mobile Marketing Association (mmaglobal.com) as well as regulatory agencies such as the U.S. Federal Trade Commission stress the importance of consumer choice and consent with respect to permission-based or opt-in marketing in the wireless space. Against this background, our findings point to the central role of permission-based or opt-in approaches to the continued acceptance and growth of companies' mobile marketing efforts. 5.2. Managerial implications Our findings suggest several implications for companies and brands developing global marketing communications and mobile marketing strategy. Foremost, managers should recognize the similarities apparent from this study related to the relationships between technology acceptance, individual characteristics, youth consumers' attitudes toward and acceptance of mobile marketing, and related mobile marketing activity. This study illustrates how perceived ease of use and perceived usefulness are central to the continued acceptance of mobile marketing. In general, the importance of ease of use and usefulness in relation to wireless devices is illustrated by the concurrent growth of smartphone penetration and usage and the growth of mobile marketing campaigns and applications. Specific to this study, the mean for perceived ease of use was highest in the China sample among the three markets. This may in part be related to the function of mobile devices in China such that, because of the characteristics of the Chinese language, fewer keystrokes are needed to enter common words and phrases. In a similar manner, the future growth of mobile marketing will in part depend on continued advancements in the usability and usefulness of wireless devices such as phones and tablets. Our findings related to the role of risk avoidance and its influence on attitudes toward mobile marketing, and subsequently acceptance and mobile marketing activity, underline an important phenomenon taking place in emerging markets such as China, where individuals' initial exposure to the Internet often takes place through mobile devices. Indeed, in developing Asian markets such as China, India, Pakistan, and various African countries, some consumers' access to markets and information occur primarily through their mobile devices, resulting in high dependence on the mobile platform. Even if an individual may be risk averse with respect to online activity, in these emerging or developing markets mobile communications and activity becomes compulsory simply because of a lack of alternatives. Additionally, the social structure in many populous developing countries in Asia such as China is one in which individuals (especially farmers) are often away from home for long periods while pursuing work opportunities in urban areas. The Chinese labor force in particular includes millions of workers from the north and west that annually migrate to the south and for whom mobile devices may be their only media and communication platform. Therefore, mobile devices might play a central role within the lives of consumers in markets in many Asian markets where existing communication infrastructures are less developed and where mobility is a central aspect of individuals' lifestyles. However, the findings reported here for the Western Europe sample differ from those for China. Independent of acceptance level, mobile marketing activity among the Western Europe respondents remained comparatively low. One reason for lower mobile marketing activity may be due to cultural differences related to privacy concerns, seen through newly proposed laws that seek to balance freedom of speech with consumers' right to privacy online (Daley, 2011) as well as an overall and continued reluctance to buy goods and services online (Lewis, 2009). Lastly, to account for the positive role of perceived innovativeness on attitude toward mobile marketing, companies will also want to further explore the concept of social commerce or social media to enable consumers to purchase, talk about, and recommend products or services direct from mobile social media such as Facebook. This is particularly true for companies and brands seeking to enter or compete more effectively in markets such as those studied here with widespread Internet mobile device adoption. 5.3. Limitations and future research In summary, the findings reported here provide perspectives on an emergent, homogeneous and global Internet culture that is increasingly defined by increased mobility. Given that markets such as the U.S., China, and Western Europe remain culturally different, particularly with respect to online privacy regulations, future research should examine specific cultural differences such as privacy concerns in greater depth in order to illustrate how these cultural differences influence both usage and acceptance of mobile marketing. Because this was a study employing a non-probability sample of the youth segment within three markets, the choice of this sampling strategy may limit the generalizability of the findings reported here. Future research with a broader sampling frame should further examine differences related to age and gender as well as socio-economic and cultural factors. Despite these limitations, this was an attempt at a parsimonious, yet integrative model linking an array of antecedent factors to acceptance of mobile marketing practices across three influential global markets.