بازاریابی موبایل: مروری بر مقالات در ارزش خود برای مصرف کنندگان و خرده فروشان
|کد مقاله||سال انتشار||مقاله انگلیسی||ترجمه فارسی||تعداد کلمات|
|23602||2014||12 صفحه PDF||سفارش دهید||10070 کلمه|
Publisher : Elsevier - Science Direct (الزویر - ساینس دایرکت)
Journal : Journal of Retailing and Consumer Services, Available online 7 February 2014
The article describes the existing knowledge of how mobile marketing can increase the value for consumers and retailers. Mobile device shopping, and consumers' use of mobile devices while shopping is shown to be both an extension of consumers' shopping behaviours developed on Internet-connected desktop and laptop computers (PC), and potentially new behaviours based on a mobile devices' uniquely integrated features such as camera, scanners and GPS. The article focuses on how mobile marketing creates value for consumers and retailers, enabling more precise research and development of managerial concepts and tools while providing both managers and academics with increased understanding of mobile marketing and its value outcomes for retailers.
Mobile devices and mobile applications offer retailers more than just the opportunity to exploit a new channel to reach customers. Mobile devices offer opportunities to combine information search, phone functionality and interaction while shopping in-store or using a product. A mobile device is a constant companion to the consumer, a gateway to a relationship between the consumer and the retailer, making it an ideal supplementary channel for distance selling and physical retailing (Shankar et al., 2010). An industry study showed that half of US mobile consumers are mobile device shoppers, 10% heavy and 40% light users (Leo Burnett and Arc Worldwide, 2011). But mobile devices are different from desktop and laptop computers (PC) due to a limited keyboard and screen size (Mahmoud and Yu, 2006), and offer functions such as camera, scanners and Global Positioning System (GPS). This makes mobile marketing potentially different from PC Internet and traditional marketing. The Mobile Marketing Association definition of mobile marketing is “a set of practices that enable organizations to communicate and engage with their audience in an interactive and relevant manner through any mobile device or network”.1 The major impacts of the Internet on retailing are the reduced search costs for the consumer (Bakos, 1997 and Lynch and Ariely, 2000), an increasing variety of products offered (Brynjolfsson et al., 2003) lower prices (Brynjolfsson and Smith, 2000), empowering consumers to make better choices for themselves, and increasing the relationship with the purchased brand after purchase (Edelman, 2010). As an example, Court et al. (2009) found that 60% of consumers of facial skin care products conducted online research after purchase. But in purchasing situations when consumers want an experience, a product trial, in-store atmosphere, or interaction with a salesperson, the Internet distance selling falls short of expectations (Daugherty et al., 2008). In conceptual studies, the additional value created by mobile services for consumers derived from being accessible independent of time and place (Balasubramanian et al., 2002 and Chen and Nath, 2004), and being customized based on time, location and personal profile (Figge, 2004), self-ascribed roll categories (professional (on duty), private (off duty)) and stance categories (busy, time on hand, waiting) (Dholakia and Dholakia, 2004). According to Kumar and Zahn (2003), the real business drivers for mobile technology were customer interaction and operational efficiency, potentially increasing retailer effectiveness and efficiency. Conceptual studies presented suggestions on mobile marketing value chains consisting of several activities performed by multiple actors (Barnes, 2002 and Buellingen and Woerter, 2004), improving communication and sales (Mamaar, 2003 and Shankar and Balusbramanian, 2009). However, the consumer's role as a co-creator of value was neglected in these studies. For instance, Prahalad and Ramaswamy (2003), see much of future innovations spurred from consumers involvement in co-creation of value. An assumption is that mobile marketing may serve as a tool for involving consumers in co-creation activities independent of time and place. Value for consumers is then assumed to drive adoption, use and loyalty to retailers' mobile marketing applications, and then affect recruitment and loyalty to the firm. Based on the above there are some concerns that require discussion. Unexplored questions include: who are the mobile device shoppers, what is the value of mobile marketing for retail consumers, what is the value of mobile marketing for retailers, and how can retailers realize the potential of mobile marketing? The purpose of this study is to describe existing knowledge on how mobile marketing can increase value for consumers and retailers. Value for consumers is assumed to drive adoption, use and loyalty to retailers' firm and mobile marketing applications, and recruitment. These factors create the foundation of competitiveness for retailers (Porter, 1985). This paper will proceed as follows: the methodology of the literature search is presented followed by the literature review. Next, the findings of the review are discussed. Finally, conclusions, managerial implications and implications for further research are presented. Fig. 1.
نتیجه گیری انگلیسی
The purpose of this literature review was to describe existing knowledge on how mobile marketing can increase value for consumers and retailers. The review revealed multiple supports for mobile marketing increasing perceived value for consumers and outcome value for retailers. However, only a limited number of studies supported mobile marketing as more effective than retailers' alternative marketing investments, delivering higher relative perceived value to consumers and higher relative outcome value for retailers. Though not verified, several studies indicated the path between consumer perceived values of mobile marketing affecting adoption, use and loyalty to retailers' mobile marketing, and increasing relative outcome value of retailers' mobile marketing. Mobile marketing may initially support consumers' and retailers' interactions during pre-purchase, service delivery in-store, and post-purchase, but to a lesser extent mobile transactions as consumers perceived them as more risky. An interesting aspect was that mobile marketing seemed to increase retailers' outcome value of existing media choices, channels, assortments, and services by the effects of channel addition and integration. The reviewed literature revealed limited knowledge about mobile device shopping behaviours, restricted to mobile advertising and retail services usage. Mobile device shoppers may be considered as multiple segments and potentially valuable to retailers, due to higher income and/or education. Knowledge of effective segmentation approaches for these consumers were limited to traditional background data. Mobile device shopping was indicated to be an extension of PC Internet shopping behaviours. Mobile marketing delivered multiple perceived values to consumers (utilitarian, emotional/entertainment/hedonic and social values), and relative benefits and values of mobile devices (enjoyable, timely and offered companionship) and marketing (efficiency, time and location convenience) compared to PC Internet. However, mobile device shopping as “an extension of PC Internet shopping” is somewhat limiting as new behaviours have become evident such QR and bar code scanning, and location based services, while potential new behaviours may be influenced by augmented reality based content and Near Field Communication (NFC) mobile device payment. These values and benefits may be perceived differently dependent on shopping context, and seemed to have some effect on retailers' brand positioning. Several studies supported the logic for integration of all retailer consumer interfaces with mobile marketing, maximizing exposure and connectivity between retailer and consumer, managing consumers' cross media and channel use, supporting self-segmentation of consumers, increasing perceived value to consumers and outcome value for retailers. The research suggested that the implementation of mobile marketing forms part of the foundation for sustainable competitive advantage. From a branding perspective mobile marketing was indicated to offer several advantages for retailers. First, mobile marketing was indicated to be a more effective channel for brand and sales driven communication than traditional media, sales promotion and direct marketing. Second, by offering opportunities to streamline, customize and enhance shopping experiences in-store, product use and other post purchase interactions, the service experience may reach new levels of perceived values and satisfaction. These new levels of “customer delight” may add to the brand image fostering loyalty and increasing recruitment of consumers. Third, mobile marketing was found to increase the value of existing marketing investments. By channel addition mobile marketing increased connectivity to retailers and was indicated to increase loyalty to store network. By adding interactivity to existing brand contact points, consumers' information processing were indicated to be improved, resulting in improved branding effects. Finally, as these potential advantages were backed up by development of a partner network and assumingly structural bonds within partner networks and structural changes of IT-structure and organization, the potential for these advantages to be more lasting are increasing. Assumingly, increased consumer co-creation activities by using mobile marketing also increase perceived value for some consumers and outcome value for firms, potentially creating higher brand involvement, loyalty and structural bonds to retailers' and more lasting competitiveness. 5.1. Managerial implications Mobile marketing implementation may be a tactical decision, adding another media to improve single media effectiveness. But the potential of mobile marketing seems to be in the integration with entire consumer interfaces. Mobile device shoppers may be valuable segments for retailers. By opt-in to retailers' mobile marketing they may be even more valuable. Retailers can deliver higher perceived value to these consumers, potentially affecting recruitment, loyalty and sales results. By opt-in to retailers' mobile marketing individual consumers are identified, behaviours traceable, perceptions, actions and relationships are more effectible, maximizing retailers' exposure and connectivity independent of time and place, and increase the value of existing marketing investments. For retailer's that rely primarily on their store network, mobile marketing may seem like a Gordian Knot. Mobile marketing seems to offer opportunities for increased consumer connectivity to retailers potentially offering sustainable competitiveness and increased outcome value. On the other hand it demands substantial resources for change processes, while mobile marketing may increase price competition from competing retailers and distance sellers encountering the physical environment.2 The worst-case scenario is consumers using retailers' shop network as show rooms, and then use mobile devices to buy from the cheapest alternative on spot, in store. This scenario is probably more likely for retailers in higher involvement categories offering supplier branded products without exclusive distribution. Mobile marketing may then affect other strategic decisions for retailers'. An alternative approach to an overall structural change implementing mobile marketing, is identifying application areas with high impact on consumer perceived and retailers' outcome value, requiring minimum investments and organizational changes, stepwise moving on to more demanding application areas while learning the new technology and consumer shopping behaviours. 5.2. Implications for further research The reviewed literature provides a limited contribution to evidence that consumer perceived value of mobile marketing affected retailers' outcome value, and that mobile marketing increased relative value for retailers and consumers. Several key areas calling for further research have emerged. These are listed under four headings: mobile device shopping, the relative outcome value of mobile marketing, mobile marketing value creation, and mobile marketing metrics. 5.2.1. Mobile device shopping There is a need to know more about the following: (1) What kind of mobile device behaviour consumers' use while shopping, (2) why they use a mobile device, (3) which devices they use, (4) in what context(s) they use mobile devices, (5) the levels of mobile usage, (6) what media is consumed?, (7) the level of channel switching and what drives this behaviour, and (8) more detailed consumer information. Such knowledge can be used to estimate diffusion patterns of such behaviours and to identify new usage of and increase the usage of existing mobile device shopping. 5.2.2. The relative outcome value of mobile marketing There is a lack of studies measuring the relative outcome value of mobile marketing. Of interest is aligning consumer-perceived value with outcome value of mobile marketing. In general, the lack of comparative results measuring effects of mobile marketing compared to retailers other investment opportunities remains problematic, as evidence by improved relative output value of mobile marketing in the review was found to be one of the major factors driving mobile marketing adoption and implementation in organizations. 5.2.3. Mobile marketing value creation Mobile marketing is a rather new way of communicating and interacting with consumers. For that reason, there is a need for more studies on mobile marketing implementation for retailers. Of a certain interest for retailers are in-store and post-purchase mobile marketing, especially when integrated with other off- and on-line communications, products, packages etc. 5.2.4. Mobile marketing metrics In order to evaluate the effectiveness and efficiency of mobile marketing practices, more empirically oriented research is needed to establish relevant metrics of mobile marketing, for example to align mobile marketing investments with overall results.