جهانی شدن و سنتی سیستم های اجتماعی-اکولوژیک: درک تاثیر گردشگری و مهاجرت کار به سیستم های پرورش گوسفند در هیمالیا
|کد مقاله||سال انتشار||تعداد صفحات مقاله انگلیسی||ترجمه فارسی|
|149398||2018||35 صفحه PDF||سفارش دهید|
نسخه انگلیسی مقاله همین الان قابل دانلود است.
هزینه ترجمه مقاله بر اساس تعداد کلمات مقاله انگلیسی محاسبه می شود.
این مقاله تقریباً شامل 8478 کلمه می باشد.
هزینه ترجمه مقاله توسط مترجمان با تجربه، طبق جدول زیر محاسبه می شود:
Publisher : Elsevier - Science Direct (الزویر - ساینس دایرکت)
Journal : Environmental Development, Volume 25, March 2018, Pages 73-84
Globalisation has increased the flow of people, ideas, knowledge, technology and money by varying degrees. Due to constraints such as inaccessibility and fragility, the Himalayan region remained isolated from the outside world until relatively recently. Globalisation has however, now breached such isolation with increased tourism in some areas and increased migration from others. The accelerated rate of tourism and out-migration has the potential to affect different components of traditional socio-ecological system (SES). In the high Himalayan region, the transhumance is a system based on seasonal and recurring movement of livestock. This paper aims to explore the contemporary transhumance systems and impacts of tourism and labour migrations to the SES. The study was conducted in three sites in the northern mountainous areas of Nepal, having either significant tourism activities or labour migration. Primary data were collected by means of livestock census, household survey and focus group discussions. The results show that there were variations in proportions of households involved in transhumance, herd size, herd composition and seasonal mobility across the study sites but transhumance remains a major source of income and an important livelihood strategy for local people in all sites. Tourism and labour migration have reduced the number of households involved in transhumance systems and herd size by changing labour and income dynamics of the households but there are differential outcomes across the study sites. The findings of this study can contribute to strategies and policies for adaptation of SESs experiencing change pressures from non-traditional factors.