مدیریت گردشگری و اسلام در شبه جزیره مالزی
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Publisher : Elsevier - Science Direct (الزویر - ساینس دایرکت)
Journal : Tourism Management, Volume 24, Issue 4, August 2003, Pages 447–456
This paper is concerned with international tourism and the Islamic religion, using the example of Malaysia as a case study to illustrate the problems and opportunities which arise when the two come into contact. Some general observations are made about the difficulties of the relationship, and conflicts between religious practices and tourist demands are identified. The authorities in Peninsular Malaysia, where Islam is central to everyday life for the dominant Malay Muslims, have responded differently to resolving this dilemma. Contrasting actions at state, national and international levels are discussed, alongside the presentation of Islam in official tourism marketing. The federal government is shown to place a high priority on meeting the needs of tourists while certain states give precedence to the dictates of religion, and international initiatives seek to promote intra-Islamic travel. Insights are thus offered into the management of tourism and Islam which may have a wider applicability beyond the particular circumstances of the case.
Tourism is traditionally closely linked to religion which has acted as a powerful motive for travel from the time of early pilgrimages to contemporary journeys to sacred places. Religious buildings, rituals, festivals and ceremonial events are important tourist attractions for those with a casual interest as well as more devout followers of the particular systems of belief represented. However, there is scope for misunderstanding between believers and non-believers in every religion with the possibility of tensions when the lives of residents and tourists of different faiths intersect at destinations visited. This is especially apparent in the case of non-Muslim tourists and resident Muslims, with considerable misunderstanding and a degree of mutual mistrust between the two worlds in general compounded in the aftermath of the 11 September 2001 attacks in the USA. In view of these developments, it seems timely to address issues arising when tourism and Islam come into direct contact and consider some ways of managing the relationship. It should also be acknowledged, albeit optimistically, that tourism does have the capacity to facilitate the cultural exchange necessary to overcome the damaging stereotypes which prevail. This paper examines circumstances in Malaysia, a South East Asian country in which Muslims are dominant, and assesses official responses to the challenges of effectively balancing the demands of a religion which is central to everyday life and those of modern international tourism. Findings are derived from a review of print and electronic media and content analysis of promotional material, supplemented by data gathered during a period of fieldwork. The information collected helps to construct a composite picture, allowing comment on the interaction between tourism and religion and conclusions about the implications of such connections. Contradictions between religious observances and visitor requirements are identified and alternative methods of resolving them at an international, national and state level are assessed. Malaysia is an interesting context within which to explore these processes given the friction in society between modernisation and Islamic revivalism which has economic and political repercussions. Divergences in positions on religion between the federal government and an opposition party which has gained control of two states have consequences for tourism, evident in the series of recent events to be outlined. The multiracial composition of Malaysia's population adds another layer of complexity to the debate about religion there and the study focuses on Peninsular Malaysia where Malay Muslims form a majority, although other ethnic groups are present with some concerns about fragmentation. In contrast, Malay Muslims are in a minority group on the island of Borneo where the indigenous peoples of the states of Sabah and Sarawak and their unique cultures are distinct tourist attractions, heavily promoted in the marketing of ecotourism which evokes images of native primitivism, a jungle environment and colonial adventures (Douglas, 1999). Malaysian diversity is further apparent in divisions separating urban and rural dwellers and the progress and prosperity found in the capital of Kuala Lumpur is not typical of the whole country; such heterogeneity must be taken into account in any discussion. Nevertheless, East Malaysia is still exposed to the privileging of Islam and the erection and redevelopment of state mosques in the capitals confirms the priority attached to its affirmation by the federal powers (Cleary, 1997).
نتیجه گیری انگلیسی
Selected critical aspects of the often troubled relationship between Islam and tourism have been discussed in this paper, using recent developments in Malaysia as illustrations. Religion allied to race is a defining feature of Malaysian society where Islam is central to public and private life, but not the only religion worshipped, with potential for conflict between Muslim residents and non-Muslim international tourists. The central and state authorities have addressed this issue in different ways linked to religious, political and economic imperatives with strains between centre and state orientations which are part of a wider political struggle. The accommodation practised by the federal government compares with the more confrontational stance of the state while international cooperative ventures are being undertaken to stimulate the larger Muslim market. Policy making in all three arenas has implications for visitor arrival flows, affecting how Malaysia is perceived as a destination and facilities and services on offer. While national authorities extend an enthusiastic welcome to tourists irrespective of their religion and origin, state decisions could inhibit Western-style tourism. Those at work in the tourism industry within Malaysia and its principal markets need to be aware of the changing conditions and have an appreciation of religious sensitivities, helping to educate tourists about appropriate behaviour. There is scope for consultation with religious figures, as well as local communities, regarding the formulation of codes of conduct and presentation of sites such as mosques and shrines as tourist attractions. The difficulties of establishing a consensus cannot be ignored, however, and the struggle to enforce Shariah law is another source of unease, although PAS has stated that only Muslims would be subject to its regulations. Further studies are necessary to fully evaluate outcomes and the effects of media reporting as well as attitudes amongst official decision makers and residents. The limitations of observations made in this review must also be acknowledged, including their greater applicability to Peninsular Malaysia compared to East Malaysia where different conditions generate other tourism management challenges (Mayer, 1999). Circumstances in Malaysia are unique, yet the case does offer insights into the dilemmas confronting Muslim nations as they attempt to come to terms with modern mass tourism. Some might choose outright rejection or seek to isolate tourists, but others face the task of striking a balance between pleasing visitors and achieving possibly much needed economic gains whilst ensuring that religious demands are respected. Although there are particular political dynamics at work in shaping policy and a range in Islamic orthodoxy, it may be that other destinations could learn something from the Malaysian experience. Its efforts to resolve the problems and those made elsewhere in the Muslim world should provide a worthwhile topic for future research, the results of interest to tourism practitioners in both generating and host countries as well as academics.