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|کد مقاله||سال انتشار||تعداد صفحات مقاله انگلیسی||ترجمه فارسی|
|35338||2010||6 صفحه PDF||سفارش دهید|
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Publisher : Elsevier - Science Direct (الزویر - ساینس دایرکت)
Journal : Personality and Individual Differences, Volume 48, Issue 4, March 2010, Pages 385–390
This study examined the degree to which neuroticism and gender interact to influence the perceived availability of social support. Three-hundred and sixty-six participants completed measures assessing perceived social support and personality. Correlation and hierarchical regression analyses showed that these two dimensions interacted to predict perceived support. That is, at low levels of neuroticism, females, relative to males, reported greater overall support, and greater appraisal support. However, as neuroticism levels increased, measures of perceived social support converged for females and males, such that at the highest levels of neuroticism, there were no gender differences in general perceived social support or appraisal support. These findings may help to address some of the inconsistencies that have been reported in the literature concerning the relationship between neuroticism and perceived availability of social support.
The trait of neuroticism has been related to a number of negative life outcomes, including health complaints, poor self-esteem, and low levels of life satisfaction (Harkness et al., 2002, Heller et al., 2004 and Watson et al., 2002). Neuroticism also has been negatively associated with measures of social support. In particular, the form of social support that neuroticism seems to be most strongly related to is perceived availability of social support (Swickert, 2009), with correlations between these two constructs ranging from −.3 to −.5 (Bolger and Eckenrode, 1991, Finch and Graziano, 2001, Lakey et al., 2002 and Russell et al., 1997). However, not all studies have found a strong relationship between these two variables (Asendorpf and van Aken, 2003, Halamandaris and Power, 1997 and Tong et al., 2004). Although it remains unclear as to what is accounting for this inconsistency, circumstantial evidence suggests that the variable of gender might be influencing the results of these studies. That is, in those studies where the findings were analyzed separately by gender, a stronger relationship was found between neuroticism and perceived social support for females than for males (Dehle and Landers, 2005, Katainen et al., 1999, Kitamura et al., 2002 and Swickert, 2009). As such, it appears that the trait of neuroticism might be differentially influencing females’ and males’ perception of the level of social support that is available to them. However, as far as we can ascertain, no one has systematically examined whether neuroticism and gender might interact to influence levels of perceived social support. Therefore, the purpose of this study is to examine this issue. So, how is it that neuroticism and gender might interact to predict perceived support? To address this question, we first need to understand how neuroticism and gender are each related to perceived social support. Neuroticism is characterized by one’s level of emotional stability. Individuals high in neuroticism tend to be more irritable, anxious, moody, and depressed, whereas those low in neuroticism tend to be more calm and relaxed (Eysenck & Eysenck, 1985). One implication of this emotionality is that the quality of one’s social interactions can be greatly impacted, with those high in neuroticism reporting lowered levels of relationship satisfaction than those low in this dimension (Lopes et al., 2003, Möller, 2004 and White et al., 2004). Lowered relationship satisfaction, in turn, is predictive of reduced levels of perceived social support (Kaul & Lakey, 2003). As a result, individuals high in neuroticism, as compared to those who are low, often feel that they do not have people they can turn to in times of need. Regarding the relationship between gender and perceived social support, both biological and social role models suggest that females are more likely to seek out social support than are males (Eagly and Crowley, 1986, Reevy, 2007 and Taylor et al., 2000). From a biological perspective, researchers have argued that the circulating hormone oxytocin, in combination with other female reproductive hormones, contributes to females’ need to “tend-and-befriend” as a response to environmental stressors. This tendency toward affiliation is believed to have an adaptive advantage for females as well as their offspring, as it means that there is a network of support available to them during times of stress. Socialization processes also are believed to play a role in explaining the differential use of social support by females and males (Eagly & Crowley, 1986). As part of their gender sex role, females are expected and encouraged to turn to others for help and support when coping with problems. However, support-seeking behavior on the part of males is often discouraged because it is perceived to signify weakness. As a result of these genetic and environmental factors, females are likely to perceive greater social support available to them than do males during times of stress (Prezza and Pacilli, 2002 and Robinson, 1995). Drawing upon this extant literature which has shown significant bivariate relationships between neuroticism and perceived social support, and gender and perceived social support, it seems reasonable to predict that neuroticism and gender may interact to influence perception of social support. Because females and those lower in neuroticism tend to have stronger ties to their social support group, the perception of support available to them would most likely be higher than males and those high in neuroticism. So by combining these two constructs, it is predicted that females who are low in neuroticism would report the greatest level of perceived support, and males who are high in neuroticism would report the lowest level of perceived support.