استفاده مستقیم از انرژی زمین گرمایی 2010 در سراسر جهان بررسی
|کد مقاله||سال انتشار||تعداد صفحات مقاله انگلیسی||ترجمه فارسی|
|57923||2011||22 صفحه PDF||سفارش دهید|
نسخه انگلیسی مقاله همین الان قابل دانلود است.
هزینه ترجمه مقاله بر اساس تعداد کلمات مقاله انگلیسی محاسبه می شود.
این مقاله تقریباً شامل 20600 کلمه می باشد.
هزینه ترجمه مقاله توسط مترجمان با تجربه، طبق جدول زیر محاسبه می شود:
Publisher : Elsevier - Science Direct (الزویر - ساینس دایرکت)
Journal : Geothermics, Volume 40, Issue 3, September 2011, Pages 159–180
This paper presents a review of the worldwide application of geothermal energy for direct utilization, and updates the previous survey carried out in 2005. We also compare data from 1995 and 2000 presented at World Geothermal Congresses in Italy and Japan, respectively (WGC95 and WGC2000). As in previous reports, an effort is made to quantify ground-source (geothermal) heat pump data. The present report is based on country update papers prepared for WGC2010 and other sources of data available to the authors. Final update papers were received from 70 countries of which 66 reported some direct utilization of geothermal energy. Twelve additional countries were added to the list based on other sources of information. Direct utilization of geothermal energy in 78 countries is a significant increase from the 72 reported in 2005, the 58 reported in 2000, and the 28 reported in 1995. An estimate of the installed thermal power for direct utilization at the end of 2009 is used in this paper and equals 48,493 MWt, almost a 72% increase over the 2005 data, growing at a compound rate of 11.4% annually with a capacity factor of 0.28. The thermal energy used is 423,830 TJ/year (117,740 GWh/yr), about a 55% increase over 2005, growing at a compound rate of 9.2% annually. The distribution of thermal energy used by category is approximately 47.2% for ground-source heat pumps, 25.8% for bathing and swimming (including balneology), 14.9% for space heating (of which 85% is for district heating), 5.5% for greenhouses and open ground heating, 2.8% for industrial process heating, 2.7% for aquaculture pond and raceway heating, 0.4% for agricultural drying, 0.5% for snow melting and cooling, and 0.2% for other uses. Energy savings amounted to 250 million barrels (38 million tonnes) of equivalent oil annually, preventing 33 million tonnes of carbon and 107 million tonnes of CO2 being release to the atmosphere, this includes savings for geothermal heat pumps in the cooling mode (compared to using fuel oil to generate electricity).