ADDIS: سیستم پشتیبانی تصمیم برای پزشکی مبتنی بر شواهد
|کد مقاله||سال انتشار||تعداد صفحات مقاله انگلیسی||ترجمه فارسی|
|6061||2013||17 صفحه PDF||سفارش دهید|
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Publisher : Elsevier - Science Direct (الزویر - ساینس دایرکت)
Journal : Decision Support Systems, Volume 55, Issue 2, May 2013, Pages 459–475
Clinical trials are the main source of information for the efficacy and safety evaluation of medical treatments. Although they are of pivotal importance in evidence-based medicine, there is a lack of usable information systems providing data-analysis and decision support capabilities for aggregate clinical trial results. This is partly caused by unavailability (i) of trial data in a structured format suitable for re-analysis, and (ii) of a complete data model for aggregate level results. In this paper, we develop a unifying data model that enables the development of evidence-based decision support in the absence of a complete data model. We describe the supported decision processes and show how these are implemented in the open source ADDIS software. ADDIS enables semi-automated construction of meta-analyses, network meta-analyses and benefit–risk decision models, and provides visualization of all results.
Two kinds of decision support systems for evidence-based medicine can be distinguished: rule-based systems for supporting operational decisions of practicing physicians and strategic decision support systems. The rule-based systems represent clinical knowledge and include inference rules for aiding professional decision making in clinical practice. They have been in existence since the 1970s . The most common of these are Computerized Physician Order Entry (CPOE) systems which contain evidence-based rules that enable issuing warnings when an inappropriate combination of medicines is prescribed. To the best of our knowledge, there are no established systems that inform strategic (rather than operational) decisions such as identifying the best treatment practices based on the consideration of benefit–risk trade-offs. Strategic health care decision making, with or without a supporting system, depends heavily on the availability of unbiased evidence from controlled clinical trials . One of the core activities and sources of information in evidence-based medicine is the systematic review , a literature review that attempts to identify and synthesize all empirical evidence that fits pre-specified eligibility criteria in order to answer a specific research question . Currently the process of systematic review is extremely labor intensive and error prone due to the lack of a comprehensive source of clinical trials, the inaccuracy of literature searches, interpretation issues, tedious manual data extraction and, importantly, the duplication of effort that is necessary for every review . The emergence of clinical trial registries  and the move towards a more open clinical research community  and , as well as the initiatives of the Cochrane foundation  to share and update meta-analysis data sets offer opportunities for more efficient approaches to evidence synthesis. Still, to date there is no single complete collection of performed clinical trials and outcome data, and importantly none of the available sources store results in a format that is suited for re-analysis  and . Thus, although suitable methods for evidence-based strategy decision support exist , ,  and , evidence-based decision making is difficult to implement because of the substantial effort required to systematically review the literature for relevant studies and to manually extract the data from these studies, which has to be done on a case by case basis. Even when a relevant published systematic review exists, evidence-based decision making including multiple (possibly conflicting) objectives is difficult and in practice often done ad hoc due to a lack of supporting information technology. In addition, sometimes it will be necessary to incorporate additional studies to the body of evidence present in the systematic review, e.g. in the regulatory context where the manufacturer sponsors studies to prove the efficacy and safety of a newly developed drug. Moreover, the analyses reported in the published systematic review may not be valid for the decision at hand, so re-analysis of the included clinical trials may be needed. Text-based reports of systematic reviews do not support such use cases. There do exist methods for automated extraction of trial design and results from the literature, but although the field is rapidly evolving (see e.g. ), their accuracy is not yet sufficient to be directly used in systems supporting strategic decisions. In this paper, we present ADDIS (Aggregate Data Drug Information System, http://drugis.org/addis), an open source evidence-based drug oriented strategy decision support system. It is an integrated software application that provides decision support for strategic decisions such as guideline formulation, marketing authorization, and reimbursement. ADDIS stores aggregate clinical trial results with a unifying data model, and implements semi-automated evidence synthesis and benefit–risk modeling. These use cases were derived from direct discussion with experts from pharmaceutical industry, regulatory authorities, and academia, and from their feedback to early prototypes of the system. Before the models can be applied, trial results must be available in the system; for this, we present an assisted procedure for importing study designs from an existing database. The evidence synthesis and decision models of ADDIS allow decision makers to visualize and understand the available evidence and the trade-offs between different treatment options, thus addressing information overload and reducing the complexity of strategy decisions informed by clinical evidence. We stress that ADDIS does not aim at operational decision support, but aids in strategic decision making and provides a platform for computational methods in clinical trial informatics. In addition, the generation of the models cannot be completely automated: some steps require decisions from a domain expert, but can be supported by ADDIS as will be shown in this paper. To the best of our knowledge, ADDIS is the first system to allow on demand generation and use of the evidence synthesis and decision support models in a suitable way for strategic decision making. We start by discussing existing systems and standards for clinical trial design and results in Section 2. The unifying data model is presented in Section 3. After that, in Section 4, we present ADDIS and the assisted procedures of study import and generation of evidence synthesis and benefit–risk models. In Section 5 we summarize our principal findings and propose directions for future research.
نتیجه گیری انگلیسی
In this paper we introduced ADDIS, a decision support system for evidence-based medicine. ADDIS was developed in the context of a scientific project aimed to enable better use of information technology in the transfer and analysis of clinical trials design and results. The long term vision was developed in collaboration with a steering group composed of experts from the pharmaceutical industry, academia and the regulatory environment. Short term plans were developed with our ‘customer’, a regulatory assessor who oversaw the development. The design was further informed by several (completed and ongoing) case studies, such as a study of the benefit–risk profiles of second generation anti-depressants. Although the software has been presented to and used by experts in the field, no formal validation or usability studies have been conducted so far. We presented a unifying data model for aggregate trial results, which is at the core of ADDIS. The model enables semi-automated generation of evidence synthesis and benefit–risk models implemented in ADDIS. All these components together allow for re-usable, re-analyzable repositories of trials and analyses to be maintained and shared among users. The value of the unifying data model is not to model the domain in detail, but to provide a uniform basis for automated evidence synthesis and decision modeling. As such, specific decision support systems may use domain specific information to further assist the decision maker. ADDIS makes use of some domain knowledge to support its primary goal: to enable the direct and indirect assessment of the comparative benefits and risks of different drugs based on all available evidence from clinical trials. For example, Arms always have a Dosing characteristic, and studies have a fixed list of characteristics that are relevant for clinical trials comparing the efficacy and safety of drugs. Multiple data models have been proposed for comprehensively storing information on the design and outcomes of clinical trials, e.g. the ClinicalTrial.gov DED and the CDISC standards. The minimal unifying data model implemented in ADDIS is not competing with these, but rather provides a target for conversion from them in order to enable semi-automated generation of evidence synthesis and decision models operating on the trial results. Traditionally the systematic reviewing process to perform a (network) meta-analysis takes a considerable amount of time and effort. While ADDIS does not address this problem directly, it does provide a uniform platform for analysis and data sharing that obviates the need for repeated data extraction. To the best of our knowledge, ADDIS is the first system to implement decision models that are directly and explicitly based on the (synthesis of) clinical trials results. By making the involved trade-offs and the link between trial results and decision model recommendations visible, ADDIS can enable more transparent strategic health care decision making. ADDIS can also help in improving the reporting of systematic reviews since the included trials are represented explicitly, rather than only in data tables pre-processed for the purpose of evidence synthesis. The decisions made in mapping the data and applying the evidence synthesis models are thus clearly represented. 5.1. Limitations and future work The decision modeling in ADDIS is based on the assumption that a structured database of relevant clinical trials is available. However, to acquire such a database is difficult and time consuming. The initial phase of development has focused on drug regulation — a use case for which it is reasonable to assume that the data will be provided in whatever format requested. For other use cases, such as guideline formulation, this assumption is not justified. If the data is not available in a suitable format, a systematic review will have to be performed and the data input into ADDIS mostly manually, although the ClinicalTrials.gov import functionality can reduce the required work. However, once the input is done, the data is more valuable than the same set of trials extracted for e.g. Cochrane RevMan, as they can be reused for different types of analyses. To make ADDIS a useful tool for a wider audience, functionality that further increases the efficiency of systematic reviewing should be added, possibly by implementing automated information extraction methods. Until now, approximately 100 clinical trials were entered for the case studies. To assess the usefulness of ADDIS in various medical domains more trials should be entered. However, as their input is mostly manual, this is an expensive and time-consuming process. Also, as the trial database gets larger, the study selection step for evidence synthesis can get cumbersome with the current implementation. More intelligent study matching/filtering (e.g. with the different characteristics) should be explored for lowering the user's work load. This may require explicit modeling of some of the aspects that are currently stored as plain text, such as the patient eligibility criteria. The scope of the unifying data model could be extended to support other types of evidence synthesis, such as meta-regression and stratified analyses. These possible extensions may introduce covariates at different levels, e.g. the time at which an outcome measure was assessed, the dosage level for a treatment, the baseline severity of illness in an arm, the length of the placebo washout phase of a study, or within-arm correlation of two or more outcome measures. As such, it will be a challenge to introduce these rather complex distinctions without making the generation of (network) meta-analyses impossible. ADDIS enables generation of benefit–risk decision models that use aggregate level, possibly synthesized, clinical trial data as part of their input. However, health care decisions can include evaluation dimensions not reported in clinical trials (e.g. convenience of administration or storage), which consequently cannot be included in ADDIS. Also, economical decision models applied in health technology assessment often do take into account the primary clinical endpoints of interest with high quality evidence, but seldom include high-quality adverse event sources . We acknowledge that adverse event reporting in general is inferior to clinical endpoint reporting due to various reasons. These include the rareness of some adverse events, the fact that most clinical trials are powered to show efficacy (which typically requires smaller sample size than detecting adverse events) and inconsistent reporting of adverse event data . Decision models based on evidence synthesis can help improve the included evidence on adverse events, but it may be necessary to include other evidence sources to consider the rarest events. To consider these and other use cases, future research should address semi-automated generation of a wider range of decision models and their implementation in ADDIS.