فانتزی و زیبایی: آیا آنها مهمانان ناخوانده در جشن هنر درمانی می شوند؟
|کد مقاله||سال انتشار||تعداد صفحات مقاله انگلیسی||ترجمه فارسی|
|30448||1995||5 صفحه PDF||سفارش دهید|
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Publisher : Elsevier - Science Direct (الزویر - ساینس دایرکت)
Journal : The Arts in Psychotherapy, Volume 22, Issue 3, 1995, Pages 217–221
Pergamon The Arts in Psychotherapy. Vol. 22, No. 3, pp. 217-221, 1995 Copyright 0 1995 Elsevier Science Ltd Printed in the USA. All rights reserved 0197-4556195 $9.50 + .oO 0197-4556(95)00020-8 FANTASY AND THE AESTHETIC: HAVE THEY BECOME THE UNINVITED GUESTS AT ART THERAPY’S FEAST? DAVID MACLAGAN, MA, ARCA, DipAT, R.A.Th* In reading much of the recent literature on art ther- apy- in Britain, at least- I am struck by two sig- nificant absences. One is the paucity of attention given to the actual material characteristics of an image to what I shall be calling its aesthetic qualities and the other is the little use made of fantasy, whether by patient or by therapist, in making sense of an image. By aesthetic I do not mean either its accomplishment in technical terms (its skill representation, for exam- ple) or its beauty in purely formal terms (its balance or harmony, for example) nor some hybrid of the two (such as the avoidance of muddy color or distorted shape); I mean the full range of qualities in itsfacture or handling, whether they be subtle or obvious, rich or poor, and the psychological effects that are their inseparable accompaniment. By fantasy I mean the ability to relate, consciously and verbally (rather than unconsciously), to a picture or part of a picture with an intuitive or irrational image. This image may or may not be involved in a narrative, but it belongs to a loosely figurative idiom, about which I shall say more later. Sadly, most writing about the actual pictures in art therapy, as opposed to analytical descriptions of the dynamics of the therapeutic relationship (where im- ages are often treated as mere by-products), is dry and flat. It is almost as if there were some fundamental discrepancy between the technical terms of art therapy and the more imagistic or metaphoric language that would be appropriate to the pictures that are, after all, its sine qua non. I cannot help thinking that this is in part a reflection of the marginal and subordinate status assigned in practice both to the aesthetic aspects of a picture and to the use of fantasy as a way of exploring its potential significance. Although there are, of course, local exceptions to this rule, the only writers I have come across in the field who provide any substantial examples of a dif- ferent perspective are Rita Simon (1992), who set out a theoretical basis for understanding the unconscious significance of pictorial form, and Shaun McNiff (1992), who exemplified the value of aesthetic qual- ities and fantasy imagery in exploring a picture. Even founding figures in the background to art therapy, such as Freud or Jung, showed a blindness to aesthet- ics and a bias against fantasy that has, I believe, had the effect of disqualifying these features and making them suspect. It is more recent figures, such as James Hillman, to whom we must turn for glimpses of a dif- ferent way of working with fantasy and the aesthetic. To understand how things have reached this pass, we need to know something of the history behind the “inferiority complex” afflicting fantasy and the aes- thetic, and to realize that the secondary position they currently occupy, where they serve best as the raw material for analysis to work on, is not an inevitable consequence of their nature, but the result of long- standing prejudice and ingrained misunderstanding. Fantasy has a long and distinguished history going back to ancient Greek theories of perception, but in 18th century Romantic England it acquired its modem connotations of extravagance and unreality largely as *David Maclagan is a Lecturer in the Centre for Psychotherapeutic Studies, University of Sheffield, United Kingdom, where he teaches on the Art Therapy Diploma course and runs an MA in art and psychotherapy. 217