دردهای در حال رشد: توسعه بین المللی هنر درمانی
|کد مقاله||سال انتشار||تعداد صفحات مقاله انگلیسی||ترجمه فارسی|
|30491||2005||21 صفحه PDF||سفارش دهید|
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Publisher : Elsevier - Science Direct (الزویر - ساینس دایرکت)
Journal : The Arts in Psychotherapy, Volume 32, Issue 3, 2005, Pages 171–191
The British Association of Art Therapists (BAAT) and the American Art Therapy Association (AATA) represent art therapists in the two countries with the most developed standards for the profession of art therapy. Many of the world's art therapists have been educated and trained by art therapists from both nations who have been invited to present, educate, advise, recommend and supervise in countries wanting an introduction to art therapy or an expansion of an existing interest. In addition, many foreign students who study in American and British universities take their newly acquired knowledge of art therapy back to their homelands. In the early 1980s, AATA received inquiries from many people interested in art therapy located in different countries around the world. Many of them wanted exposure to visiting art therapists. As AATA Public Information Chair (1981–1985), I appealed to the Board in 1984 “To actively pursue the development of and membership in an international art therapy association following a report on ways and means of establishing such an association and the benefits and liabilities of such membership.” The motion was approved and a follow-up report was requested (minutes, 1984 Fall Board meeting, American Art Therapy Association). As a follow-up, 49 survey questionnaires were sent to four known art therapy associations and 45 individuals representing 7 countries. Recipients were asked to duplicate the questionnaire and distribute it to other art therapists. Over 200 responses received by spring 1985 revealed surprisingly widespread interest in the profession and the need for an international organization to overcome the isolation experienced by art therapists in countries where individuals were one of very few or sole representatives of the profession. One survey respondent summarized the consensus of all. “It is currently a need that professional people of all countries should come close to grow art therapy!” Unfortunately, a serious financial crisis for AATA in 1985 necessitated abandoning international interests to commit resources to its own survival. Completed questionnaires continued to be received long after my term on AATA's board ended and stimulated me to invite art therapists from 20 countries to participate in an international panel presentation at AATA's 1989 Conference in San Francisco. Seventeen countries sent panelists or lengthy reports. Art therapists from every country represented at the conference met at a spontaneous luncheon on November 19, 1989 to network and discuss the need for ongoing international contact. The International Networking Group (ING) of Art Therapists was formed at that luncheon and has grown through word of mouth and a semi-annual newsletter to reach over 5000 art therapists in 80 countries. ING correspondents and other inquirers provided contacts for isolated art therapists desperately seeking colleagues, education, credentials, or peer support to develop training or establish an association (Stoll, 1991, pp. 27–32). The ING archives have been enriched by 20 years of historical perspective of art therapy's development, yet, information about art therapy in various nations, whether sparse or abundant, is now often outdated, incomplete or unreliable. The material in this article is based on personal contacts, observations during travel and the most recent communications. Sincere apologies are extended for inaccuracies and omissions and corrective correspondence is most welcome. Nonetheless, I believe a global picture of developing international trends will be evident.
نتیجه گیری انگلیسی
In countries around the globe, one or two pioneering spirits working in isolation rediscover the power in creative expression. These upstart art therapists are, by necessity, pioneers at heart and seem to persevere against governments, competitors, regulatory bodies, healthcare systems, payers and employers. The majority of student applicants in the US and Britain are art graduates who possess particular abilities and maintain a strong identification with the role of artist as well as therapist. With medical or paramedical training, rather than immersion in an art program for 4 years, a difference in practice can be anticipated. Also when national regulations limit practice to psychologists and psychiatrists using art (Austria, Bulgaria, Germany, Hungary, Italy, Japan, and Switzerland), establishing a university-based art therapy education program is extremely difficult and, for better or worse, institute training, workshops, and occasional classes proliferate. This increases the difficulty in establishing associations, professional or mixed, providing a universal understanding of what art therapy is, understanding how and with whom it is appropriately used and outlining ethical practices for art therapists. Today artists, educators, doctors and therapists minimally exposed to art therapy contact ING and AATA seeking introductory information about art therapy, art therapy techniques, supervised internships, scholarships or financial support, research assistance and the location of training programs. Most heard or read about the profession or worked with an art therapist, usually a volunteer from Britain or the US teaching or working in their country on a sponsored program or grant (Stoll, 2001b). Some knew an art therapist who was a temporary resident. Interest is high but financial, human or educational resources are limited or non-existent in Azerbaijan, Bahrain, Bali, Bangladesh, Bosnia-Herzegovena, Congo, Croatia, Cyprus, Egypt, Estonia, Ghana, Guam, Guatemala, Indonesia, Iran, Kazakhstan, Kuala Lumpur, Kyrgyzstan, Latvia, Lebanon, Mananos, Malaysia, Myanmar, Okinawa, Pakistan, Romania, Serbia, Slovenia, Thailand (Finney, 1998), Turkey, Ukraine, Venezuela, and Zimbabwe. One, two or even more trained art therapists in a country (e.g., Kuwait, Luxembourg, Poland, Singapore, and Thailand) are desperate to locate others in their country or in neighboring nations to exchange information, start training programs, collaborate on research, support legislative efforts to impact government or regulatory boards for recognition and/or credentials, or simply to maintain professional contact. Cuba, Iceland, India, New Zealand, South Africa, Greece and others with small associations of a few art therapists need additional colleagues to develop further. The countries included in this report were selected as examples of typical developmental problems and solutions, similarities and differences, and cultural influences. It was necessary to limit examples to focus on trends. There is no intent to slight any hard-working group of art therapists determined to establish the profession and, in fact, ING has aided many. With a history as old as humankind but first recognized and intentionally focused on health and education early in the 20th century, art therapy in most countries is either beginning to develop, still developing, expanding job opportunities, being re-defined or refined, seeking inclusion or struggling for formal acceptance and qualifying credentials to practice. The developmental pattern and sequence are predictable yet there is no universal formula for success as variables are too numerous. Andrea Gilroy (2000) may have said it best, “I think it is really important to remember that in all the countries around the world where art therapy is practiced, systems are different, the student populations are different, the funding bases are different all because the cultures are different, ergo the structures that professional associations create in order to function within mental health care will be different. And, finally, the practice will be different …. Art therapy is … a discipline which develops according to the particular social, cultural and economic circumstances of individual countries” (p. 6). Despite these differences, the common denominator for art therapists worldwide are the healing power of the creative process and the symbolic language of art!