مقایسه اثر بخشی هنر درمانی بر افسردگی و منبع کنترل زندانیان مرد و زن
|کد مقاله||سال انتشار||تعداد صفحات مقاله انگلیسی||ترجمه فارسی|
|30517||2009||صفحه PDF||سفارش دهید|
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Publisher : Elsevier - Science Direct (الزویر - ساینس دایرکت)
Journal : The Arts in Psychotherapy, Volume 36, Issue 4, September 2009, Pages 202–207
Ongoing studies have revealed the positive effects of art therapy with prison inmates. The most recent publication presented the effectiveness of art therapy with male and female prisoners [Author. (in press). The effects of art therapy on male and female inmates: Advancing the research base. The Arts in Psychotherapy]; specifically, the results demonstrated significant, positive change with both the male and female prison population in mood and locus of control. However, one interesting trend that seemed to emerge as the study progressed was an apparent difference in the effectiveness and response to the art therapy between the male and female inmate populations. Along with qualitative evaluation, additional statistical calculations were applied to determine if the numbers indicated any significant difference between the men and women in changes of depression and locus of control for those that received art therapy services. The results indicated a trend towards significance in a greater improvement in mood and internal locus of control in female inmates than the male inmates did. This article concludes with a brief discussion on possible reasons for these differences, and with a reevaluation of past theoretical concepts of the advantages of art therapy with prison inmates, contending that not all of these advantages apply to the female inmate population.
Ongoing studies have revealed the positive effects of art therapy with prison inmates. The most recent publication presented the effectiveness of art therapy with male and female prisoners (Gussak, 2009). Using several measurement tools, the study's goal was to determine if art therapy influenced participants’ mood, locus of control (LOC), and behavior. The overall results demonstrated significant, positive change with both the male and female prison population in mood and locus of control. However, one trend that seemed to emerge as the study progressed was an apparent difference in the effectiveness and response to the art therapy between the male and female inmate populations. It was determined that this deserved further analysis. Along with qualitative evaluation, additional statistical calculations were applied to determine if the results indicated any significant difference between the men and women in changes of depression and locus of control for those that received art therapy services. This report will present an overview of theoretical perspectives on differences between male and female inmates, description of the methods used, and an overview of the statistical results. After concluding that there was some statistical support for differences between the male and female populations’ response to art therapy in mood and locus of control, this report will conclude with speculations on possible reasons for these differences.
نتیجه گیری انگلیسی
Although as evidenced by the prior publication (Gussak, 2009) that art therapy influenced men and women's mood and locus of control positively, a further exploration of the data revealed that women might respond more noticeably to the art therapy interventions than the men, specifically a greater change in mood and locus of control. Although currently this data only revealed a trend towards significance, it does support the overall view that female inmates may have a more external locus of control, a greater tendency towards depression, and yet may be more responsive to art therapy as an alternative means of addressing these issues. There are obvious limitations that prevented drawing absolute conclusions on the difference between the male and female inmate population. These studies were conducted in one small region of the United States, and the participants came from only two prison facilities. The sample sizes also were somewhat small and homogenized. The results may also be influenced by the art therapist providing the services, and there is no data yet on whether the gender of the art therapist influenced the results. This latter issue may not be as significant, since the majority of art therapists are women (Elkin, Stovall, & Malchiodi, 2003), however, it would be interesting to determine in future studies if the results changed based on gender of the art therapists providing the services. It is recommended that future studies be expanded to include other prisons throughout the United States, that larger sample sizes of various participants are generated and a larger team of art therapists that includes men be used to facilitate the sessions and collect the data. It is also recommended that the study be established longitudinally, to expand the length of time that the inmates are provided art therapy services, and that follow-up assessments are conducted to determine long-term effects. It is also anticipated that future research will add an anger management assessment to determine the effects that art therapy has on anger and aggression. In summary, the data and anecdotal information generated from this study indicates that women may have displayed a greater change in mood and LOC. It also reflected that the men and women responded to the art therapy in different ways. Regardless of these differences, both male and female inmates seemed to benefit from this intervention, and this study further supports the understanding that art therapy is effective in working with prison inmates.